Publications by Centre Members

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J Roberts, '"Faint Hope" in the Firing Line: Repeal of S. 745.6?' (2009) Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 537

K Baker, ''Evidence based policy and practice', 'Key elements of effective practice' and 'Rehabilitation'' in B. Goldson (ed), Dictionary of Youth Justice (Cullompton: Willan 2008)

R Burnett, F. McNeill, S. Bachelor and J. Knox, 21st Century Social Work Reducing Reoffending: Key Practice Skills (Scottish Executive 2005)

AYK Lee, 'Cosmopolitanism: A Philosophy for Global Ethics by Stan van Hooft; Globalizing Justice: The Ethics of Poverty and Power by Richard W. Miller. ' (2012) 72 Analysis 202   [Review]

A Ashworth, A Change of Normative Position: Determining the Contours of Culpability in Criminal Law (11, New Criminal Law Review 2008) [...]

DOI: 10.1525/nclr.2008.II.2.232

Critical re-examination of the doctrine of 'change of normative position' in criminal law theory, comparing it with forms of constructive liability.


ISBN: 1933-4206

R G Hood, F Seemungal and S Shute, A Fair Hearing? Ethnic Minorities in the Criminal Courts (Willan Publishing 2005) [...]

This book reports an empirical study which was commissioned by the Lord Chancellor’'s Department and jointly devised and directed by Roger Hood and Stephen Shute. The book was jointly written by them, with fieldwork and computing support from Florence Seemungal, research officer at the Oxford Centre for Criminology.


ISBN: 1-843920-84-0

EA Stanko, J Jackson, B Bradford and K Hohl, 'A golden thread, a presence amongst uniforms, and a good deal of data: studying public confidence in the London Metropolitan Police' (2012) 22 Policing and Society [...]

DOI: 10.1080/10439463.2012.671825

This article discusses how four authors came together to create – inside a police service – a specific approach to public ‘trust and confidence’. We have had many theoretical debates – about the nature of public understanding of policing, police culture, procedural justice and public trust in public institutions in a democracy. Also, while we continue to debate, we wade through mounds of data gathered routinely through the Metropolitan Police's own Public Attitude Survey. Reporting internally on a quarterly basis, the survey challenges police colleagues to think about how the police must demonstrate to citizens their trustworthiness to act fairly, effectively and with the best interests of communities at heart. Our experience of moulding the discourse about public confidence inside the largest police service in the UK suggests that police culture itself has been challenged by the accountability that lies at the heart of trust and trustworthiness. We have been asked by the editors of this issue to share with readers how we have come to create a contribution to understanding what drives confidence in policing, which is now a routine part of its performance management.


N Lacey, A Life of H.L.A. Hart: The Nightmare and the Noble Dream (winner of the Swiney Prize and shortlisted for the British Academy Book Prize and the James Tait Black Memorial Prize for biography) (Oxford University Press 2004)

I Loader and R Muir, 'A Manifesto for Progressive Police and Crime Commissioners' (2011) New Statesman ('The Staggers' blog)

R G Hood, F Seemungal, D Mendes and J Fagan, 'A Penalty Without Legitimacy: The Mandatory Death Penalty in Trinidad and Tobago' (Oxford: Centre for Criminology 2009)

R G Hood and F Seemungal, 'A Rare and Arbitrary Fate. Conviction for Murder, the Mandatory Death Penalty and the Reality of Homicide in Trinidad and Tobago' (Death Penalty Project, Oxford Centre for Criminology 76 2006) [...]

The research on which this report is based was devised and directed by Roger Hood. Fieldwork, the development of a database, and statistical assistance was the responsibility of Florence Seemungal, visiting scholar at the Oxford Centre for Criminology. The report was written Roger Hood.


C Roberts, R Burnett, Kirby and H Hamill, 'A System for Evaluating Probation Practice' (1996) University of Oxford Centre for Criminological Research

I Loader, A Thumala and B Goold, 'A Tainted Trade? Moral Ambivalence and Legitimation Work in the Private Security Industry' (2011) 62 British Journal of Sociology 283 [...]

The private security industry is often represented – and typically represents itself – as an expanding business, confident of its place in the world and sure of its ability to meet a rising demand for security. But closer inspection of the ways in which industry players talk about its past, present and future suggests that this self-promotion is accompanied by unease about the industry’s condition and legitimacy. In this paper, we analyse the self-understandings of those who sell security – as revealed in interviews conducted with key industry players and in a range of trade materials – in order to highlight and dissect the constitutive elements of this ambivalence. This analysis begins by describing the reputational problems that are currently thought to beset the industry and the underlying fears about its status and worth that these difficulties disclose. We then examine how security players seek to legitimate the industry using various narratives of professionalization. Four such narratives are identified – regulation, education, association and borrowing – each of which seeks to justify private security and enhance the industry’s social worth. What is striking about these legitimation claims is that they tend not to justify the selling of security in market terms. In conclusion we ask why this is the case and suggest that market justifications are ‘closed-off’ by a moral ambivalence that attaches to an industry trading in products which cannot guarantee to deliver the condition that its consumers crave.


I Loader, E Girling and R Sparks, 'A Telling Tale: A Case of Vigilantism and its Aftermath in an English Town' (1998) 49 British Journal of Sociology 474

R G Hood, 'Abolishing and Replacing Capital Punishment: Recent Developments’' in Hemdat Libi Israeli (ed), The Fortitudes of Creativity: In Honor of Shlomo Giora Shoham (Israel 2010)

R Hood and C Hoyle, 'Abolishing the Death Penalty Worldwide: The Impact of a New Dynamic?' (2009) 38 Crime and Justice: A Review of Research 1

R G Hood and C Hoyle, 'Abolishing the Death Penalty Worldwide: the Impact of a ‘New Dynamic’' in Michael Tonry (ed), Crime and Justice, vol. 38, Capital Punishment (University of Chicago Press 2009)

R G Hood, 'Abolition of the Death Penalty: China in World Perspective' (2009) 1 (1) City University of Hong Kong Law Review 1

R Burnett, P McGhee and D D Clarke, Accounting for Relationships: Explanation, Representation and Knowledge (Methuen 1987)

R Condry and C Miles, 'Adolescent to parent violence and youth justice in England and Wales' (2012) 11 Social Policy & Society 241 [...]

DOI: 10.1017/S1474746411000601

Adolescent to parent violence is a problem which remains largely unarticulated within youth justice policy literature and academic discourse in England and Wales. This article presents research evidence suggesting that adolescent to parent violence is a significant problem which needs to be clearly addressed in the youth justice policy agenda. Although it is widely recognised by practitioners and regularly encountered in their work, there is a ‘silence’ at the policy level and a lack of appropriate support services or responses. The article considers reasons for the absence of adolescent to parent violence in youth justice policy and argues for the importance of recognising and defining the problem and for the development of appropriate responses.


ISBN: 1474-7464

R Condry and C Miles, 'Adolescent to Parent Violence and Youth Justice in England and Wales' (2012) 11 Social Policy and Society 241

R Condry and Caroline Miles, 'Adolescent to Parent Violence: Framing and Mapping a Hidden Problem' (2013) Criminology and Criminal Justice (forthcoming) [...]

DOI: 10.1177/1748895813500155

Adolescent to parent violence is virtually absent from policing, youth justice and domestic violence policy, despite being widely recognized by practitioners in those fields. It is under-researched and rarely appears in criminological discussions of family or youth violence. This article presents the first UK analysis of cases of adolescent to parent violence reported to the police. We analyse victim, offender and incident characteristics from 1892 cases reported to the Metropolitan Police in 2009–2010, most of which involved violence against the person or criminal damage in the home. Our findings reveal that adolescent to parent violence is a gendered phenomenon: 87 per cent of suspects were male and 77 per cent of victims were female. We argue that the absence of adolescent to parent violence from criminological discourse must be addressed if criminology is to have a thorough understanding of family violence in all its forms.


I Loader, E Girling and R Sparks, 'After Success?: Anxieties of Affluence in an English Village' in T Hope and R Sparks (eds), Crime, Risk and Insecurity: Law and Order in Political Discourse and Everyday Life (Routledge 2000)

J Roberts, 'Aggravating and Mitigating Factors at Sentencing: Towards Greater Consistency of Application' [2008] Criminal Law Review 264

J Roberts, 'Alchemy in sentencing: an analysis of reform proposals in England and Wales.' (2002) Punishment and Society. The International Journal of Penology, 2002.

J Roberts, 'An analysis of the statutory statement of the purposes and principles of sentencing in New Zealand.' (2003) Australia and New Zealand Journal of Criminology

A Wilcox, R Young and C Hoyle, 'An Evaluation of the Impact of Restorative Cautioning: Findings from a Reconviction Study, Home Office Research Findings' (Home Office 255 2004)

J Roberts, 'An Introduction to Criminal Justice in Canada' in Roberts, Julian V. and Grossman, Michelle (eds), Criminal Justice in Canada : a Reader (Nelson Thomson Learning 2003)

M Bosworth, 'Anatomy of a Massacre: Gender, Power and Punishment in Revolutionary Paris' (2001) 7(10) Violence Against Women 1101

J Donoghue, 'Anti-Social Behaviour and the Courts in England and Wales: Report of Findings.' (Oxford: University of Oxford. 2011)

J Donoghue, Anti-Social Behaviour Orders: A Culture of Control? (Palgrave Macmillan 2010)

J Donoghue, 'Anti-Social Behaviour, Community Engagement and the Judicial Role', paper presented at Invited Paper given at the University of Newcastle, School of Law Seminar Series, 23rd November 2011

J Donoghue, 'Anti-Social Behaviour, Community Engagement and the Judicial Role in England and Wales' (2011) British Journal of Criminology [...]

DOI: 10.1093/bjc/azr079

A problem-solving approach to anti-social behaviour (ASB) cases has recently been embedded into magistrates’ courts in England and Wales. This approach incorporates core components of the Anti-Social Behaviour Response Court (ASBRC) model and is underpinned by principles of community justice. This article summarizes some of the main findings of an 18-month ESRC-funded study that investigated how far the ASBRC model has been absorbed into mainstream courts in England and Wales. This research suggests that courts have not embedded community justice principles, nor have they altered their focus to incorporate a significant degree of liaison with the community. The article concludes with some observations on the implications of the findings for the development and enhancement of community engagement and community justice principles.


J Donoghue, 'Antisocial Behaviour Orders & Civil Liberties: Striking a Balance?' (2006) 163 The Prison Service Journal [...]

Antisocial behaviour orders (ASBOs) are increasingly being used to proscribe non-illegal behaviour that is disapproved of, or which does not conform to accepted social norms. In some circumstances, the use of ASBOs appears to over-ride legal convention for reasons of political pragmatism. This article looks at the questions raised about the value and status of civil liberties and human rights within anti social behaviour legislation, and also within the wider 'tough on crime' agenda.


J Donoghue, 'Antisocial Behaviour Orders in Britain: Contextualizing Risk & Reflexive Modernization' (2008) 42 Sociology 337 [...]

DOI: 10.1177/0038038507087357

This article proposes a (re)consideration of antisocial behaviour control informed by an analysis of the seminal work of sociologists of `reflexive modernity' (Beck, 1992, 1994; Giddens, 1990, 1991; Lash, 1994). It is hoped that the arguments advanced within this article will prompt further consideration of the following questions: What does the relative neglect of the reflexive modernity thesis tell us about the domain conjecture(s) of sociological theory on antisocial behaviour policy and the use of ASBOs? And can a focus upon reflexive modernity theory help to construct a more proportionate account of ASBOs as a form of social control? Hence, it is the purpose of this article to consider critically the implications of Beck's `risk society' to our understandings and explanations of antisocial behaviour, ASBOs and social control, by linking the late modern (re)formatting of antisocial behaviour(s) and the creation of ASBOs to the new parameters of the `risk society'.


B Kellezi, D Reicher and C Cassidy, 'Appraisal, social identity and trauma. The case of Kosovo Albanians' (2009) 58 Applied Psychology; An international Review. Special issue: Social Identity, Health and Well-being 59

R Condry, 'Appreciating the Broad Reach of Serious Crime and the Interpretive Power of Claims to Secondary Victimization' in David Downes, Dick Hobbs and Tim Newburn (eds), The Eternal Recurrence of Crime and Control: Essays in Honour of Paul Rock (Clarendon: Oxford 2010)

A Wilcox, C Hoyle and R Young, 'Are Randomised Controlled Trials Really the "Gold Standard" in Restorative Justice Research?' (2005) 3 British Journal of Community Justice 39

K Baker, G Kelly and B Wilkinson, Assessment in Youth Justice (Bristol: The Policy Press. 2011)

K Baker, 'Assessment in youth justice: professional discretion and the use of Asset' (2005) 5 Youth Justice 106

R Burnett, Baker, K. and Roberts, C., 'Assessment, supervision and intervention: fundamental practice in probation' in L. Gelsthorpe and R. Morgan (eds.) (eds), Handbook of Probation (Willan 2007)

R Burnett, K Baker and C Roberts, 'Assessment, Supervision and Intervention: Fundamental Practice in Probation' in L. Gelsthorpe and R. Morgan (eds), The Handbook of Probation (Cullompton: Willan 2007)

R G Hood, 'Attacking the Death Penalty in the Anglophone Caribbean: A Criminological Contribution' in Heinz Müller-Dietz (ed), Festschrift für Heike Jung (Baden-Baden, Nomos 2007) [...]

reprinted in Luis Arroyo, Paloma Bigling and William A. Schabas (eds.), Towards universal abolition of the death penalty, Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch (2010), 241-264


R G Hood, 'Attacking the Death Penalty in the Anglophone Caribbean: A Criminological Contribution' in Luis Arroyo, Paloma Bigling and William A. Schabas (eds), Towards universal abolition of the death penalty (Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch 2010) [...]

previously printed in Festschrift für Heike Jung, 2007


A Ashworth, 'Attempts' in John Deigh, David Dolinko (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Criminal Law (Oxford University Press, New York 2011) [...]

An assessment of issues in the law of criminal attempts.


ISBN: 978-0-19-531485-4

J Roberts, 'Az ítélkezési rendszer alakítása Angliában és Walesben: Tanulságok Magyarország számára? (Sentencing Reform in Hungary: Lessons from England and Wales)' in Szemle, Number 2, OKRI. (Budapest: Hungarian Institute of Criminology. 2011)

C Hoyle, 'Being a 'nosy bloody cow': ethical and methodological issues in researching domestic violence' in R King and E Wincup (eds), Doing Research on Crime and Justice (Oxford University Press 2000)

I Loader and R. Sparks, 'Beyond Lamentation: Towards a Democratic Egalitarian Politics of Crime and Justice' in T. Newburn and J. Peay (eds), Policing: Politics, Culture and Control (Oxford: Hart 2012)

I Loader and R Sparks, 'Beyond Mass Incarceration?' (2014) 23 The Good Society

EA Stanko and B Bradford, 'Beyond measuring "how good a job" police are doing: the MPS model of confidence in policing' (2009) 3 Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice 332

M Bosworth, 'Border Control and the Limits of the Sovereign State' (2008) 17 Social and Legal Studies 199

M Bosworth, 'Border Crossings: Immigration Detention and the Exclusive Society' in M Lee (ed), Human Trafficking. Collumpton (Willan Publishing 2007)

I Loader and R Sparks, 'Braithwaite, Criminology and the Debate on Public Social Science' in S Parmentier, I Aertson, J Maesschalck, L Paoli and L Walgrave (eds), The Sparking Discipline of Criminology: John Braithwaite and the Construction of Critical Social Science and Social Justice (Leuven University Press 2011)

I Loader and S Percy, 'Bringing the 'Outside' In and the 'Inside' Out: Crossing the Criminology/IR Divide' (2012) 13 Global Crime 213

M Bosworth, 'Can Immigration Detention be Legitimate' in KF Aas and M Bosworth (eds), The Borders of Punishment: Citizenship, Crime Control and Social Exclusion (Oxford University Press 2013) (forthcoming)

C Hoyle, 'Can International Justice be Restorative Justice?: The role of reparations' in N Palmer, D. Granville adn P Clark (eds), Critical Perspectives in Transitional Justice (Intersential Press 2011)

A Myhill and B Bradford, 'Can police enhance public confidence by improving quality of service? Results from two surveys in England and Wales' (2012) 22 Policing and Society [...]

DOI: 10.1080/10439463.2011.641551

Public opinions of the police have been a fixture at the top of the policy agenda in England and Wales in recent years, with successive governments stating they wish to see improvements in �trust and confidence�. But significant doubts remain as to how this might be done, and even if it is possible for police to enhance public confidence in any straightforward way. Indeed, it often seems that it is much easier for police to damage public opinion than to improve it. This paper reports findings from two surveys on contact between the public and the police conducted in England and Wales. First, panel data are used to examine the issue of �asymmetry� in the relationship between satisfaction with police contacts and wider public confidence in the police. Negative pre-existing opinions of the police are found to be predictive of negatively received contact, while positive views do not predict well-received contact. Yet, single contacts, both negative and positive, are predictive of subsequent confidence in the police. Second, British Crime Survey data are used to investigate what �drives� satisfaction among crime victims. Personal treatment appears to be valued over criminal justice outcomes, providing support for process-based policing models. It appears that fears about an absolute asymmetry in the effect of contact on confidence may be overstated, and that improving the way officers handle encounters might lead to enhanced trust and confidence.


N. Bala and J Roberts, 'Canada’s Juvenile Justice System: Promoting Community-based Responses to Youth Crime' in J. Junger-Tas and S. Decker (eds), International Handbook of Juvenile Justice. (Dordrecht: Springer Publications. 2006)

R G Hood, 'Capital Punishment in Global Perspective' (2001) vol 3, No 3 Punishment and Society 331 [...]

Reviews the extent to which the movement to abolish capital punishment has been successful and discusses some of the influences which have produced a remarkable increase in the number of abolitionist countries in the past two decades.


ISBN: 1462-4745(200107)

R G Hood, 'Capital Punishment: the Commonwealth in World Perspective' (2008) 17 (3) The Commonwealth Lawyer 30

I Loader, S Anderson, R Kinsey and C Smith, Cautionary Tales: Young People, Crime and Policing in Edinburgh (Avebury 1994)

J Roberts and Mike Hough, Changing Attitudes to Punishment. Public opinion, crime and criminal justice (Willan Publishing 2002) [...]

This volume explores the evolution of public attitudes to punishment in western nations.

ISBN: 1-84392-002-6

J Roberts and Mike Hough (eds), Changing Attitudes to Punishment: International Context. (Willan Publishing. 2002) [...]

Roberts is the first editor and individual responsible for producing this volume. It draws upon research conducted around the world and has been favorably reviewed in: Criminal Justice; SCOLAG Law Journal;British Journal of Criminology and British Society of Criminology Bulletin.

ISBN: 1-84392-003-4

J Roberts and M. Hough, 'Changing Attitudes to Punishment: The Context' in J.V. Roberts and M. Hough (eds), Changing Attitudes to Punishment. Public Opinion, Crime and Justice. ( Cullompton: Willan Publishing. 2002)

A Ashworth, 'Child Defendants and the Doctrines of the Criminal Law' in James Chalmers, Fiona Leverick and Lindsay Farmer (eds), Essays in Criminal Law in Honour of Sir Gerald Gordon (Edinburgh University Press 2010) [...]

An examination of the extent to which familliar requirements and defences in criminal law apply to child defendants, with or without adaptation.


ISBN: 978 0 7486 4070 6

J Morgan and L Zedner, Child Victims, Crime, Impact, and Criminal Justice (Oxford University Press 1992)

M Bosworth, 'Citizenship and Belonging in a Women's Immigration Detention Centre' in C Phillips and C Webster (eds), New Directions in Race, Ethnicity and Crime (Routledge 2013) (forthcoming)

I Loader and N Walker, Civilizing Security (Cambridge University Press 2007)

L Lazarus, 'Civilizing Security by I Loader and N Walker' (2008) Public Law Winter   [Review]

AYK Lee, 'Co-national and Cosmopolitan Obligations towards Foreigners' (2011) 31 Politics 159 [...]

DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9256.2011.01415.x

This article specifically argues against those who think that, by appealing to Thomas Hurka's argument for co-national obligations in his ‘The Justification of National Partiality’, these co-national obligations take priority over certain cosmopolitan obligations towards foreigners, when the shared history of the co-nationals is (a) a history of shared suffering, (b) a shared history of mutual benefit or (c) a shared history of jointly benefiting others. I shall argue that if this is the case, then Hurka's account surprisingly gives us a reason to fulfil our cosmopolitan obligations towards foreigners first before fulfilling our special obligations towards co-nationals.


J Roberts and E. Erez, 'Communication in Sentencing: Exploring the Expressive and the Impact Model of Victim Impact Statements' in C. Hoyle (ed), Restorative Justice (London: Routledge 2009)

J Roberts and E. Erez, 'Communication in sentencing: exploring the expressive and the impact model of victim impact statements.' (2004) International Review of Victimology

J Donoghue, 'Community Engagement and the Courts' (2011) Magistrate Magazine (forthcoming)

J Roberts and Kent Roach, 'Community sentencing and the perspective of crime victims: a socio-legal analysis.' (2005) Queen's Law Journal, 2005.

K Baker, 'Community Services for Children and Young People' in G. Towl and D. Crighton (eds), Forensic Psychology (Wiley-Blackwell 2010)

J Roberts, 'Community Views of Sentencing: Intuitive and Principled Responses to Offending' in M. Tonry (ed), Punishment Futures. Studies in Penal Theory and Philosophy. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2011)

N Lacey, 'Community, Culture and Criminalisation' in Rowan Cruft, Matthew H. Kramer and Mark R. Reiff. (eds), Crime, Punishment and Responsibility: The Jurisprudence of Antony Duff (Oxford University Press 2011 2011) [...]

This essay sets out from Duff’s Punishment, Communication and Community (2001), and poses the question of whether it is possible to pursue the goal of a criminal law which realizes the values and represents the interests of a ‘liberal community’ in a world of radical value pluralism. I shall examine this question by means of a case study: that of the cultural defence. Over the last twenty years, advocates of the cultural defence have argued that normative considerations of political morality dictate that differences in experience and world-view should modify the way in which criminal law is applied, potentially adjusting the standard applied to individuals. How convincing, I ask, is this argument? Can it be reconciled with Duff’s liberal communitarian vision of criminal justice? And, to the extent that it cannot be so reconciled, does this undermine the case for the cultural defence, or rather necessitate a revision of Duff’s argument?


Sandra Fredman, Chris McConnachie and L Lazarus, [...]

This memorandum was prepared for the Legal Resources Centre, South Africa to assist in the preparation of submissions in two hate speech cases to be heard by the Supreme Court of Appeal: Herselman v Geleba and Afriforum v Malema


J Jackson, B Bradford, M Hough and KH Murray, 'Compliance with the law and policing by consent: notes on police and legal legitimacy' in Adam Crawford and Anthea Hucklesby (eds), Legitimacy and compliance in criminal justice ( 2012)

J Roberts, B. Fischer and M. Kirst, 'Compulsory drug treatment in Canada: a socio-legal history and examination of contemporary legal tools.' (2002) European Addiction Research, 2002.

L Lazarus, 'Conceptions of Liberty Deprivation' (2006) 69 Modern Law Review 738

A Ashworth, Conceptions of Overcriminalization (5, Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 2008) [...]

Re-assessment of Kadish's work on criminalization, and proposal of further principles.


ISBN: ISSN 1546-7619

I Loader, 'Consumer Culture and the Commodification of Policing and Security' (1999) 33 Sociology 373

I Loader, B Goold and A Thumala, 'Consuming Security?: Tools for a Sociology of Security Consumption' (2010) 14 Theoretical Criminology 3 [...]

How does our understanding of private security alter if we treat security consumption as consumption? In this paper, we set out the parameters of a project which strives – theoretically and empirically – to do just this. We begin with a reminder that private security necessarily entails acts of buying and selling, and by indicating how the sociology of consumption may illuminate this central – but overlooked – fact about the phenomenon. We then develop a framework for investigating security consumption. This focuses attention on individual acts of shopping; practices of organizational security that individuals indirectly consume; and social and political arrangements that may prompt the consumption of, or themselves be consumed by, security. This way of seeing, we contend, calls for greater comparative enquiry into the conditions under which markets for security commodities flourish or founder, and close analysis of the social meanings and trajectories of different security goods. By way of illustration we focus on four such categories of good – those we term commonplace, failed, novel and securitized. The overarching claim of the paper is that the study of private security currently stands in need of greater conceptual and empirical scrutiny of what is going on when ‘security’ is consumed.


ISBN: 1362-4806

B Bradford, J Jackson and EA Stanko, 'Contact and confidence: Revisiting the impact of public encounters with the police' (2009) 19 Policing and Society 20

I Loader and R Sparks, 'Contemporary Landscapes of Crime, Order and Control: Governance, Risk and Globalization' in M Maguire, R Morgan and R Reiner (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th Edn) (Oxford University Press 2007)

I Loader and R Sparks, 'Contemporary Landscapes of Crime, Order and Control: Governance, Risk and Globalization' in M Maguire, R Morgan and R Reiner (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (3rd Edn) (Oxford University Press 2002)

L Lazarus, Contrasting Prisoners\' Rights: A Comparative Examination of England and Germany (OUP 2004)

L Lazarus, Benjamin Goold and Caitlin Goss, 'Control without Punishment: Understanding Coercion' in Jonathan Simon and Richard Sparks (eds), Handbook of Punishment and Society (Sage Press 2012)

B Bradford, 'Convergence not divergence? Trends and trajectories in public contact and confidence in the police' (2011) 51 The British Journal of Criminology 179 [...]

DOI: 10.1093/bjc/azq078

Public trust and confidence are vital to the police function. There has been much comment and debate about the apparent decline in confidence in the British police since the 1950s, most frequently evidenced by data from the British Crime Survey (BCS). Yet, there has been relatively little in-depth interrogation of the data at the heart of the discussion. Pooling data from 11 sweeps of the BCS (1984 to 2005/06), this paper shows a homogenization over time in trends in trust and confidence and experiences of encounters with the police. This pattern is found across both age and ethnicity, and can also be identified in other variables. The story that emerges therefore differs from analyses that emphasize the increasingly diffuse and variable nature of public experiences of the police.


ISBN: 0007-0955

J Donoghue, 'Courts, Communities and the Big Society' (2011) Available on Crime Talk at: http://www.crimetalk.org.uk/archive/section-list/38-frontpage-articles/438-courts-communities-and-the-big-society.html [...]

Anti-social behaviour is a serious and pernicious social problem in a significant number of areas and communities across Britain; its effects must not be understated or minimised. Consequently, efforts to enhance levels of engagement between affected communities and the courts should be welcomed. However, strategies to improve liaison between the judiciary and communities are certainly not unproblematic for a variety of reasons which I will discuss below. Drawing upon my own recent research (Donoghue 2010; also 2008 and 2007), I will identify the challenges and opportunities ahead for improved engagement between magistrates’ courts and our communities.


M Bosworth, 'Creating the Responsible Prisoner: Federal Admission and Orientation Packs' (2007) 9 Punishment and Society 67

M Hough and J Roberts, 'Crime and Criminal Justice: Exploring the Policy Options for Britain' in D Halpern, V Uberoi, I McLean and A Coutts (eds), Policy Options for Britain (Palgrave Macmillan 2009)

L Zedner and B Goold (eds), Crime and Security (Ashgate 2006) [...]

Edited volume of leading articles in the field selected and introduced by us.


ISBN: 0 7546 2600 8

I Loader, E Girling and R Sparks, Crime and Social Change in Middle England: Questions of Order in an English Town (Routledge 2000)

I Loader, E Girling and R Sparks, 'Crime and the Sense of One's Place: Globalization, Restructuring and Insecurity in an English Town' in V Ruggerio, N South and I Taylor (eds), The New European Criminology: Crime and Social Order in Europe (Routledge 1998)

J Jackson and B Bradford, 'Crime, policing and the moral order: On the expressive nature of public confidence in policing' (2009) 60 The British Journal of Sociology 493

L Zedner, Criminal Justice (OUP 2004)

A Ashworth and Elaine Player, 'Criminal Justice Act 2003: the Sentencing Principles' (2005) 68 Modern Law Review 822 [...]

A critical review of the major sentencing provisions introduced by the Criminal Justice Act 2003.


ISBN: 0026-7961

J Roberts and M. Grossman (eds), Criminal Justice in Canada. (Fourth Edition) (Toronto: Thomson Nelson 2011)

J Roberts (ed), Criminal Justice in Canada. Third Edition. (Thomson Nelson 2007) [...]

This text explores a diversity of issues in criminal justice in Canada.

ISBN: 0-19-513623-3

J Roberts, Criminal Justice in Canada: An Overview (J. Roberts and M. Grossman, Toronto: Thomson Nelson. 2007)

A Ashworth, 'Criminal Justice Reform: Principles, Human Rights and Public Protection' [2004] Criminal Law Review 516 [...]

Critique of foundations for recent criminal justice legislation


ISBN: 0011-135X

L Lazarus and Ryan Goss, 'Criminal Justice under the UK Human Rights Act: dynamic interaction between domestic and international law' (2013) Singapore Academy of Law Journal [...]

The article demonstrates how, both before and after the HRA, UK courts and legislators have sought to reconcile common law approaches to protecting rights and liberties with the approaches of the Strasbourg Court. It uses the development of the case law as an insight into a dynamic institutional dialogue: how interaction with the ECtHR has shaped the way that UK courts, governments and Parliament have acted on criminal justice issues and vice versa.


A Ashworth, 'Criminal Justice, not Criminology?' in Mary Bosworth and Carolyn Hoyle (eds), What is Criminology? (Oxford University Press 2011) [...]

An attempt to discuss the distinctions and interrelations between criminology, criminal justice and criminal law.


ISBN: 978-0-19-957182-6

A Ashworth and Michelle Strange, 'Criminal Law and Human Rights' (2004) European Human Rights Law Review 121 [...]

Review of recent developments on human rights and criminal law


ISBN: 1361 1526

A Ashworth and Michelle Strange, 'Criminal Law and Human Rights in 2002' (2003) European Human Rights Law Review 139 [...]

Review of judicial decisions on human rights and crime in 2002


ISBN: 1361-1526

A Ashworth, 'Criminal Law, Human Rights and Preventative Justice' in Bernadette McSherry, Alan Norrie and Simon Bronitt (eds), Regulating Deviance: the Redirection of Criminalisation and the Futures of Criminal Law (Hart Publishing 2009)

A Ashworth, 'Criminal Procedure, Human Rights and Balance' in Thomas Elholm et al (ed), Ikke kun Straf: Festskrift til Vagn Greve (Jurist- og Okonomforbundets Forlag 2008) [...]

Critique of developments in criminal procedure in the European Court of Human Rights, notably in relation to Article 6 and self-incrimination.


ISBN: 978-87-574-1693-0

A Ashworth, 'Criminal Proceedings after the Human Rights Act: the First Year' [2001] Criminal Law Review 855 [...]

Critical analysis of first year's criminal cases on the Human Rights Act


ISBN: 0011-135X

I Loader and R Sparks, 'Criminology and Democratic Politics: A Reply to Critics' (2011) 51 British Journal of Criminology 734

R G Hood, 'Criminology and Penal Policy: the vital role of empirical research' in Anthony Bottoms and Michael Tonry (eds), Ideology, Crime and criminal Justice: a Symposium in Honour of Sir Leon Radzinowicz (Willan Publishing 2002) [...]

Discusses the importance of empirical evidence for criminological theory and criminal policy.


ISBN: 1-903240-90-5

I Loader, 'Criminology and the Public Sphere: Arguments for Utopian Realism' in P Walton and J Young (eds), The New Criminology Revisited (Macmillan 1998)

I Loader, 'Criminology in a hot climate' (2010) Public Lecture, British Library

I Loader and R Sparks, 'Criminology's Public Roles: A Drama in Six Acts' in M Bosworth and C Hoyle (eds), What is Criminology? (Oxford University Press 2011)

F McNeill, R Burnett and T McCulloch, 'Culture, Change and Community Justice' (2010) The Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research

L Zedner, 'Curfews' in Peter Cane & Joanne Conaghan (eds), The New Oxford Companion to Law (Oxford University Press 2008)

J Roberts and M Hough, 'Custody or Community? Exploring the Boundaries of Public Punitiveness in England and Wales (in press)' (2010) Criminology and Criminal Justice

L Zedner, 'Dangers of Dystopias in Penal Theory - Extended review of David Garland, The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).' (2002) 22 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 341   [Review] [...]

Extended review of David Garland The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).


ISBN: 0143-6503

F Varese, De Russische mafia (J.M. Meulenhoff 2004)

C Cunneen and C Hoyle, Debating Restorative Justice (Hart Publishing 2010)

L Zedner and A Ashworth, 'Defending the Criminal Law: Reflections on the changing character of crime, procedure, and sanctions' (2008) 2 Journal of Criminal Law and Philosophy 21

A Ashworth and L H Zedner, Defending the Criminal Law: Reflections on the Changing Character of Crime, Procedure and Sanctions (2, Criminal Law and Philosophy 2008) [...]

DOI: 10.1007/s11572-007-9033-2

Re-assessment of the trend away from traditional criminal law and criminal procedure, and re-assertion of the normative significance of criminal law principles and protections.


ISBN: 1871-9791

M Dempsey, C Hoyle and M Bosworth, 'Defining Sex Trafficking in International and Domestic Law: Mind the Gaps' (2012) Emory International Law Review (forthcoming)

L Lazarus, 'Delivering Rights: How the Human Rights Act is Working by J Jowell and J Cooper' (2004) Public Law Winter   [Review]

L Lazarus and Natasha Simonsen, 'Democratic Deliberation and Judicial Review' in Murray Hunt (ed), Parliament and Human Rights: Redressing the Democratic Deficit (Oxford University Press 2014) (forthcoming) [...]

This chapter argues provides a model which Courts could apply in their assessment of Parliamentary deliberation of rights limiting legislation. It argues for such a transparent assessment as a prerequisite of the exercise of judicial deference.


A Ashworth, 'Departures from the Sentencing Guidelines' [2012] Criminal Law Review [...]

A critique of the law and practice relating to departues from the sentencing guidelines in England and Wales


ISBN: 0011-135X

M Bosworth, 'Deportation and Immigration Detention: Globalising the Sociology of Punishment' (2012) 16 Theoretical Criminology (forthcoming)

M Bosworth, 'Deporting Foreign National Prisoners in England and Wales ' (2011) 15 Citizenship Studies 583

M. Hough, J Roberts, J. Jacobson, N. Steele, and N. Moon, 'Determining Crime Seriousness and the Custody Threshold: An Analysis of the Public’s View' (London: Sentencing Advisory Panel 2009)

J Roberts, 'Determining parole eligibility dates for life prisoners: lessons from jury hearings in Canada.' (2002) Punishment and Society. The International Journal of Penology, 2002.

J Jackson and others, 'Developing European indicators of trust in justice ' (2011) 8 European Journal of Criminology [...]

Like other modern-day democracies, Belgium has in the last quarter century introduced many changes in its system for justice administration, by undertaking judicial reforms and commissioning empirical research on public confidence. Following long years of fierce criticism of the police and the criminal justice system since the late 1980s, the turn of the century witnessed three quantitative surveys (the Justice Barometers) in 2002, 2007 and 2010. These were complemented by several qualitative studies in specific districts or with specific groups. Although many variables appear to exert some influence on public confidence, the one that emerges time and again is the degree of contact with the justice system and the ensuing negative perceptions that result from it. This contribution describes the most salient findings of this decade of public opinion research on the criminal justice system in Belgium and reflects on the implications for judicial policy-making.


A Ashworth, 'Die Rettungspflicht im englischen Recht' in Andreas von Hirsch, Ulfrid Neumann and Kurt Seelman (eds), Solidaritat im Strafrecht (Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 2013) [...]

A theoretical examination of the principles on which English criminal law grounds liability or non-liability for omissions.

ISBN: 978-3-8487-0213-8

R G Hood and M Feilzer, 'Differences or discrimination? Minority ethnic young people in the youth justice system' ( 248 2004) [...]

This book reports an empirical study which was directed by Roger Hood with the fieldwork and statistical analysis being carried out by Martina Feilzer, then a research officer at the Oxford Centre for Criminology. The book was jointly written by Martina Feilzer and Roger Hood.


N Lacey, 'Differentiating among Penal States' (2010) 61 British Journal of Sociology 778   [Review]

J Roberts and S. Verdun-Jones, 'Directing traffic at the crossroads of criminal justice and mental health: implications of the Supreme Court judgment in R. v. Knoblauch.' (2002) Alberta Law Review, 2002.

A Ashworth and Dirk van Zyl Smit, 'Disproportionate Sentences as Human Rights Violations' (2004) 67 Modern Law Review 541 [...]

A study of the application of human rights law to disproportionate sentences


ISBN: 0026-7961

J Jackson, B Bradford, K Hohl and S Farrall, 'Does the fear of crime erode public confidence in policing?' (2009) 3 Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice 100

M Bosworth and others, 'Doing Prison Research: Views from Inside' (2005) 11 Qualitative Inquiry 1

R Burnett, 'Editorial: The will and the ways to becoming an ex-offender' (2010) 54 International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 663

R Burnett, 'Effective practice in approved premises: a literature review. Home Office Research Study' (2004) Home Office

J Donoghue, 'Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Britain: The Original Yob Culture?', paper presented at Public Lecture, The British Museum, London. 18 May 2008

J Roberts and S. Wallace-Capretta, 'Electronic Monitoring and Community Custody in Canada. ' in R. Bas, K. Beyens, D. Kaminski and M. Nellis (eds), Electronically Monitored Punishment: Critical Perspectives (Cullompton: Willan Publishing. 2011)

J Roberts, 'Elektronisch toezicht: van toezichttechnologie naar een autonome sanctie (Electronic Monitoring: from Surveillance Technology to Autonomous Sanction).' in T. Daems, T.S. De Decker, L. Robert, and F. Verbruggen (eds), Elektronische Toezicht (Leuven: Leuven University Press. 2009)

D Da Cruz and others, 'Emergency Department Contact Prior to Suicide in Mental Health Patients' (2010) Emergency Medicine Journal

I Loader, S Karstedt and H Strang (eds), Emotions, Crime and Justice (Hart 2011)

C Hoyle, 'Empowerment through Emotion: The use and abuse of victim impact evidence' in E Erez, M Kilchling, and J Wemmers (eds), Therapeutic Jurisprudence and Victim Participation in Justice: International Perspectives (Carolina Academic Press 2011)

J Roberts and P. Stenning, 'Empty promises: parliament, the Supreme Court and the Sentencing of Aboriginal Offenders.' (2001) Saskatchewan Law Review, 2001.

M Bosworth (ed), Encyclopedia of Prisons and Correctional Facilties, Volume One and Two. (Sage Reference 2005) [...]

This two volume work was awarded Best Reference 2005 by the Library Journal. I contribute some entries, as well as an introduction.

J Roberts and Mike Hough, 'English Believe Sentences Soft and Rising.' in Penal Reform in Overcrowded Times (Oxford University Press 2001)

R G Hood, 'Enhancing EU Action Against the Death Penalty in Asia' (European Parliament, Directorate General for External Policies EXPO/B/DROI/2011/22 2012)

P Tomlin, 'Envy, Facts and Justice: a critique of the treatment of envy in justice as fairness' (2008) 14 Res Publica 101

M Bosworth, 'Epilogue' in M Bosworth and J Flavin (eds), Race, gender and punishment: From colonialism to the war on terror (Rutgers University Press 2007)

A Ashworth, 'Eroding the Structure of the Convention? The Public Interest in Prosecutions for Serious Crime' in K.S. Ziegler and P.M. Huber (eds), Current Problems in the Protection of Human Rights (Hart Publishing 2013) [...]

An examination of the European Court of Human Rights' tendency to give increasing weight to public interest considerations, moving away from older doctrines.


ISBN: 978-1-84946-124-5

L Zedner, 'Erring on the side of safety: Risk assessment, expert knowledge, and the criminal court' in I Dennis & GR Sullivan (eds), Seeking Security: Pre-empting the Commission of Criminal Harms (Hart Publishing 2012)

R G Hood, Stephen Shute and Florence Seemungal, 'Ethnic Minorities in the Criminal Courts: Perceptions of Fairness and Equality of Treatment' (2003) Research series No. 2/03 Lord Chancellors Office, London 137 plus aendix: total 149 [...]

A large scale study, based on extensive interviews and observations, of the extent to which ethnic minority and white defendants and witnesses perceived their treatment to have been fair and free of ethnic bias.


ISBN: 1 84099 0481

M Bosworth, B Bowling and M Lee, 'Ethnicity, Globalization and Criminal Justice' (2008) 12 Special Issue, Theoretical Criminology

C Hoyle, E Cape, R Morgan and A Sanders, 'Evaluation of the 'One Stop Shop' and Victim Statement Pilot Projects' (1998) Home Office RDSD

R Young and C Hoyle, 'Examining the Guts of Restorative Justice' (2000) 40 Criminal Justice Matters

G.Robinson and R Burnett, 'Experiencing modernisation: frontline probation perspectives on the transition to a national offender management service' (2007) 54 Probation Journal 318

J Roberts, 'Explaining the Enduring Appeal of the Recidivist Sentencing Premium: The Role of Blameworthiness' in A. von Hirsch et al. (ed), Principled Sentencing. Readings on Theory and Policy. (Third edition) (Oxford: Hart Publishing 2009)

M Bosworth, Explaining U.S. Imprisonment (Sage Publications 2010)

J Roberts and T. Sanders, 'Exploring Public Attitudes to Conditional Sentencing' in Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods. (Pearson 2004)

T. Sanders and J Roberts, 'Exploring Public Attitudes to Conditional Sentencing' in J. Winterdyk, L. Coates and S. Brodie (eds), Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods (Toronto: Pearson 2006)

J Roberts and M. Hough, 'Exploring Public Attitudes to Sentencing Factors in England and Wales.' in J.V. Roberts (ed), Mitigation and Aggravation at Sentencing. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2011)

J Roberts and J. Sprott, 'Exploring the Differences between Punitive and Moderate Penal Policies in the United States and Canada' in H. Kury and T. Ferdinand (eds), International Perspectives on Punitivity. Crime and Public Policy. Volume 4. (Bochum: Brockmeyer 2008)

C Hoyle and M Walters and C Hoyle, 'Exploring the Everyday World of Hate Victimisation through Community Mediation' (2011) Interntational Review of Victimology

A Ashworth, 'Exploring the Integrity principle in Evidence and Procedure' in P. Mirfield and R.J. Smith (eds), Essays for Colin Tapper (Butterworths 2003)

B. Mitchell and J Roberts, Exploring the Mandatory Sentence for Murder (Oxford: Hart Publishing 2012)

R Burnett and G. Eaton, 'Factors Associated with Effective Practice in Approved Premises' (Home Office Online Report 33 2004)

I Loader, 'Fall of the 'Platonic Guardians': Liberalism, Criminology and Political Responses to Crime in England and Wales' (2006) 46 (4) British Journal of Criminology 561

R Condry, 'Families Outside: The Difficulties Faced by Relatives of Serious Offenders' (2007) Prison Service Journal

R Condry, Families Shamed: The Consequences of Crime for Relatives of Serious Offenders (Willan Publishing 2007)

C Hoyle and N Palmer, 'Family justice centres: A model for empowerment?' (2014) 20 International Review of Victimology 1 [...]

The London Borough of Croydon, in the south of England, established, in December 2005, a Family Justice Centre (FJC) to respond in a flexible way to meet the varied needs of those abused in intimate relationships. The FJC brings together some 33 agencies under one roof. This article draws on a small, grounded pilot study of the Croydon FJC – the first study of a FJC in the UK  to consider if the co-location and cooperation of services to victims of domestic abuse has the potential to empower victims to make informed choices about their futures.


ISBN: 0269-7580

I Loader, R Sparks and E Girling, 'Fear and Everyday Urban Lives' (2001) 38 Urban Studies (review issue on 'Fear and the City') 885

C Hoyle, 'Feminism, Victimology and Domestic Violence' in Sandra Walklate (ed), Handbook of the Victims and Victimology (Willan Publishing 2007)

L Zedner, 'Fines' in Peter Cane & Joanne Conaghan (eds), The New Oxford Companion to Law (Oxford University Press 2008)

R Burnett, 'Fitting Supervision to Offenders: Assessment and Allocation in the Probation Service, Home Office Research Study' (1996) 153 Home Office

L Zedner, 'Fixing the Future? The pre-emptive turn in criminal justice' in Bronnit, S, McSherry, B & Norrie, A. (eds), Regulating Deviance: The Redirection of Criminalisation and the Futures of Criminal Law (Hart Publishing 2009)

I Loader and R Sparks, 'For an Historical Sociology of Crime Policy in England and Wales since 1968' in M Matravers (ed), Managing Modernity: Politics and the Culture of Control (Routledge 2005)

I Loader and R Sparks, 'For an Historical Sociology of Crime Policy in England and Wales since 1968' (2004) 7 Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 5

I Loader, 'For penal moderation: Notes towards a public philosophy of punishment' (2010) 14 Theoretical Criminology 349

M Bosworth and E Kaufman, 'Foreigners in a Carceral Age: Immigration and Imprisonment in the U.S.' (2011) 22 Stanford Law & Policy Review 101

A Ashworth, 'Four Threats to the Presumption of Innocence' (2006) 10 International Journal of Evidence and Proof 241 [...]

A revised and improved version of my SALJ article, written for a British readership and dealing with attacks on the presumption of innocence.


A Ashworth, 'Four Threats to the Presumption of Innocence' (2006) 123 South African Law Journal 62 [...]

An exploration of the justifications for the presumption of innocence, and the various arguments for curtailing it by reversing the burden of proof in certain types of case.


K Baker, S Jones, C Roberts and S Merrington, 'Further Development of Asset' (London: Youth Justice Board 2005)

A Ashworth, 'Further Notes on Coherence in Criminal Justice' in P. Asp, C.E. Herlitz and L. Holmqvist (eds), Flores Iuris et Legum: Festskrift till Nils Jareborg (Iustus Vorlag, Uppsala, Sweden 2002)

M Bosworth and A Fili, 'Gender and Corrections' in C. Renzetti, S. Miller and S. Gover (eds), Handbook of Gender and Crime Studies (Routledge 2012)

M Bosworth and E Kaufman, 'Gender and Punishment ' in J Simon and R Sparks (eds), Handbook of Punishment and Society (Sage 2012) (forthcoming)

M Bosworth, 'Gender, Race, and Sexuality in Prison: The Politics of Identity' in B H Zaitzow and J Thomas (eds), The Technology of Gender Domination in Confined Places (Lynne Reinner Publishers 2003)

M Bosworth, 'Gender, Risk and Recidivism' (2005) 3 Criminology and Public Policy 181

A Ashworth, 'General Principles of Criminal Law' in D.J. Feldman (ed), English Public Law (Oxford University Press 2004)

A Ashworth (ed), General Principles of Criminal Law (Oxford University Press 2009)

C Hoyle, 'Global Restrictions on the Use of the Death Penalty: The New Dynamic of Human Rights' [2011] 28 Criminal Law Review 1

M Bosworth, B Bowling and M Lee, 'Globalisation, ethnicity and racism: An introduction' (2008) 12 Theoretical Criminology 263

J Roberts and E. Baker, 'Globalization and the New Punitiveness.' in The New Punitiveness: Current Trends, Theories and Perspectives (Willan Publishing 2005)

I Loader, 'Governing European Policing: Some Problems and Prospects' (2002) 12 Policing & Society 291

M Bosworth, 'Governing the Responsible Prisoner: A Comparative Analysis' in P Triantafillou and E Sørensen (eds), The Politics of Self-Governance (Ashgate 2009)

M Bosworth and M Guild, 'Governing through migration control: Security and Citizenship in Britain' (2008) 48 The British Journal of Criminology 703

M Bosworth and M Guild, 'Gran Bretagna: governare attraverso il controllo delle migrazioni' in S. Palidda (ed), Razzismo Democratico: La Persecuzione degli Stranieri in Europa (AgenziaX 2009)

M Bosworth and M Guild, 'Gran Bretaña: el gobierno a través del control de las migraciones' in S. Palidda (ed), Criminalización étnica de los migrantes en Europa (Comares 2010)

F Varese, 'Great Mobility' (2004) Times Literary Supplement '6   [Review]

J Roberts, 'Harmonizing the sentencing of young and adult offenders: a comparison of the Youth Criminal Justice Act and Part XXIII of the Criminal Code.' (2004) Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice

F Varese, 'Has Fascism returned to Italy?' (2005) 60 Italian Politics & Society 87

M Walters and C Hoyle, 'Healing Harms and Engendering Tolerance: the promise of restorative justice for hate crime' in N Chakraborti (ed), Concepts, policy, future directions (Willan 2010)

A Bottoms and J Roberts (eds), Hearing the Victim: Adversarial Justice,Crime Victims, and the State (Willan Publishing 2010)

R G Hood, 'Hermann Mannheim and Max Grünhut' in J. Beatson and R. Zimmermann (eds), Jurists Uprooted. German Speaking Émigré Lawyers in Twentieth Century Britain (OUP 2004)

R G Hood, 'Hermann Mannheim and Max Grünhut' (2004) 44(4) British Journal of Criminology [...]

Also published as book chapter in Jurists Uprooted. German Speaking Émigré Lawyers in Twentieth Century Britain


N Lacey, 'Historicising Criminalisation: Conceptual and Empirical Issues' (2009) 72 Modern Law Review 936

R Burnett, 'Homelessness and crime' in G Towl, D Farrington, D Crighton and G Hughes (eds), Dictionary of Forensic Psychology (Willan 2008)

L Lazarus, 'How about a British Bill of Rights?' (2013) The Ship 57

F Varese, 'How Mafias Migrate: the case of the `Ndrangheta in Northern Italy' (2006) 40(2) Law and Society Review 411

I Loader, 'How, and why, to stop banking on prisons (2009 Perrie Lecture)' (2009) Prison Service Journal

A Ashworth and Ben Emmerson, Human Rights and Criminal Justice (Sweet and Maxwell 2001) [...]

Analysis of effects of European human rights law on English criminal proceedings


ISBN: 0421 639 105

A Ashworth, Ben Emmerson and Alison Macdonald, Human Rights and Criminal Justice (Thomson Sweet & Maxwell 2007) [...]

Co-written and co-edited basic text for practitioners.


ISBN: 97 80421876101

M Bosworth, 'Human Rights and Immigration Detention (Forthcoming)' in M-B Dembour and T Kelly (eds), Are Human Rights for Migrants? Critical Reflections on the Status of Irregular Migrants in Europe and the United States (Routledge 2011)

A Ashworth, Human Rights, Serious Crime and Criminal Procedure (Sweet & Maxwell 2002)

L Zedner, 'Human Security' in A Wakefield and R Wild (eds), The Sage Dictionary of Policing (SAGE 2008)

I Loader, 'Ice Cream and Incarceration: On Appetites for Security and Punishment' (2009) 11 Punishment and Society 241 [...]

In this paper, I set out a framework for investigating the relationship between contemporary consumer desires and practices and public demands for security and punishment. In so doing, I argue that punishment-centred public responses to crime, social disorder and terrorist threats (what has been termed penal excess) are today bound up with other, widespread social practices of excess. The paper takes the form of a reconstruction and critique of contemporary securitarian obsessions and proceeds as follows: I begin with a discussion of how the concept of excess (and its close cousins) has been and might potentially be applied to the social analysis of crime and crime control. I then make a case for understanding demands for security and punishment as an appetite and examine how the coupling of such appetites with identity, the market and the state can give rise to excessive, punitive, insecurity-reproducing penal practices. I conclude with some brief reflections on the ‘end’ of excess – both in terms of its corrosive, self-defeating effects and how one may seek to moderate or counteract them.


M Bosworth, 'Identity, Citizenship and Punishment' in Mary Bosworth and Jeanne Flavin (eds), Race, gender and punishment: From colonialism to the war on terror (Rutgers University Press 2007) [...]

Chapter in book I coedited on race, gender and punishment. Analysis of recent legislation in the USA.

ISBN: 0-8135-3904-8

A Ashworth, 'Ignorance of the Criminal Law, and Duties to Avoid it' (2011) 74 Modern Law Review 1 [...]

A critique of the doctrine that ignorance of the criminal law is no excuse, showing how preposterous the doctrine is and arguing that, even if it should continue in a muted form, it should be accompanied by positive duties on the State to publicise its criminal laws.


ISBN: 0026-7961

M Bosworth, 'Immigration Detention' (2008) 71 Criminal Justice Matters 24

M Bosworth, 'Immigration Detention' in S Pickering (ed), Routledge Handbook on Crime and Migration ( 2014) (forthcoming)

M Bosworth, 'Immigration Detention and Foreign Nationals in Prison' (2008) 180 Prison Service Journal 18

N. Bala, P. Carrington and J Roberts, 'Implementing Youth Justice Reform: Effects of the Youth Criminal Justice Act ' in J. Winterdyk and R. Smandych (eds), Youth Justice in Canada (Toronto: Oxford University Press 2011)

M Bosworth and G Slade, 'In Search of Recognition: Gender and Staff-Detainee Relations in a British Immigration Removal Centre' (2014) 16 Punishment & Society (forthcoming)

K Hohl, B Bradford and EA Stanko, 'Influencing trust and confidence in the London Metropolitan Police: results from an experiment testing the effect of leaflet-drops on public opinion' (2010) 50 The British Journal of Criminology 491 [...]

DOI: 10.1093/bjc/azq005

Enhancing trust and confidence has moved to the centre of policing policy in England and Wales. The association between direct encounters with police officers and confidence in the police is well-established. But is it possible for the police to increase confidence among the general population including those people who do not routinely come into direct contact with police officers? This paper presents the findings from a quasi-randomised experiment conducted on population representative samples in seven London wards that assessed the impact of a leaflet drop on public perceptions of policing. The results provide strong evidence of an improvement in overall confidence, and in perceptions of police–community engagement, specifically. The leaflets also appear to have had a buffering effect against declines in public assessments of police effectiveness. The findings support the idea that public trust and confidence can be enhanced by direct police communication of this type.


ISBN: 0007-0955

R Young, C Hoyle, K Cooper and R Hill, 'Informal Resolution of Complaints Against the Police: A quasi-experimental test of restorative justice' (2005) 5 Criminal Justice 279

M Bosworth, Inside Immigration Detention: Foreigners in a Carceral Age (Oxford University Press 2014) (forthcoming)

L Lazarus, 'Inspecting the Tail of the Dog' in Melissa McCarthy (ed), Incarceration and Human Rights (Manchester University Press 2010)

P Tomlin, 'Internal Doubts about Cohen?s Rescue of Justice' (2010) 18 Journal of Political Philosophy 228

C Miles, 'Intoxication and Homicide: A Context-Specific Approach' (2012) 52 British Journal of Criminology 870

C Miles, 'Intoxication-Related Homicide in England and Wales' (2010) 188 Prison Service Journal 22

C Hoyle, Roderick Hill, Karen Cooper and Richard Young, 'Introducing Restorative Justice to the Police Complaints System: Close Encounters of the Rare Kind.' (2003) Occasional Paper No. 20. Centre for Criminological Research 35 [...]

This report presents a discussion of data on the introduction of restorative processes in the police complaints system.

ISBN: 0 947811 19 2

M Bosworth, 'Introduction' in M Bosworth and J Flavin (eds), Race, gender and punishment: From colonialism to the war on terror (Rutgers University Press 2007)

R G Hood, 'Introduction' in Jon Yorke (ed), Against the Death Penalty: International Initiatives and Implications (Aldershot: Ashgate 2008)

J Roberts, 'Introduction to Criminal Justice in Canada' in Criminal Justice in Canada (Fourth Edition) (Toronto: Pearson 2011)

I Loader, 'Introduction: Mapping the Penal Landscape of England and Wales' in A Dockley and I Loader (eds), The Penal Landscape: The Howard League Guide to Criminal Justice in England and Wales (London: Routledge 2013)

K Baker, R Burnett and C Roberts, 'Is Asset really an asset? Risk assessment of young offenders' in What Works in Probation and Youth Justice: Developing Evidence-Based Practice (Cullompton: Willan 2004)

I Loader, 'Is it NICE? The Appeal, Limits and Promise of Translating a Health Innovation into Criminal Justice ' (2010) 63 Current Legal Problems 72

L Zedner, 'Is the Criminal Law is only for Citizens? A Problem at the Borders of Punishment' in K Franko Aas & M Bosworth (eds), The Borders of Punishment: Migration, Citizenship, and Social Exclusion (Oxford University Press 2013)

A Myhill and others, 'It Depends What You Mean by Confident: Operationalizing Measures of Public Confidence and the Role of Performance Indicators' (2011) 5 Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice 114 [...]

DOI: 10.1093/police/par027

Centralized performance frameworks for the police in England and Wales have been the subject of considerable debate. Evidence from both the British Crime Survey and local force surveys shows that setting performance targets for public confidence in the police based on single indicator survey measures can have conceptual and practical difficulties. Specifically, such measures can misrepresent the views of some respondents and might underestimate public support for the police. We argue in favour of local public attitudes surveys reconfigured to measure aspects of procedural fairness, police legitimacy, and public intentions to co-operate.


R Burnett and C Appleton, 'Joined-up services to tackle youth crime: a case-study in England' (2004) 44 British Journal of Criminology 34

R Burnett and C. Appleton, Joined-up Youth Justice: Tackling Youth Crime in Partnership (Russell House Publishing 2004)

I Loader, 'Journeying Into, and Away From, Neo-Liberal Penality' in M McCarthy (ed), Incarceration and Human Rights (Manchester University Press 2010)

J Roberts, 'Jury Reviews of Parole Eligibility for Life Prisoners' in Criminal Justice in Canada (Fourth Edition) (Toronto: Pearson. 2011)

J Jackson, B Bradford, EA Stanko and K Hohl, Just Authority? Trust in the Police in England and Wales (Routledge 2012)

A Ashworth and L Zedner, 'Just Prevention: preventive rationales and the limits of the criminal law' in RA Duff & S Green (eds), Philosophical Foundations of the Criminal Law (Oxford University Press 2011)

A Ashworth and Lucia Zedner, 'Just Prevention: Preventive Rationales and the Limits of the Criminal Law' in R.A. Duff and Stuart P. Green (eds), Philosophical Foundations of Criminal Law (Oxford University Press 2011) [...]

A critical assessment of the role of preventive rationales in, and on the boundaries of, the criminal law.


ISBN: 978-0-19-955915-2

A Ashworth and L Zedner, 'Just Prevention: preventive rationales and the limits of the criminal law' in RA Duff & S Green (eds), Philosophical Foundations of the Criminal Law (Oxford University Press 2011)

I Loader, 'Justice, Democracy and the Limits of Policing: Rethinking Police Accountability' (1994) 3 Social and Legal Studies 521

J Roberts and N. Bala, 'Juvenile Justice Reform in Canada.' in Handbook of International Juvenile Justice (Springer 2006)

I Loader and R Sparks, 'Knowledge Politics and Penal Politics in Europe' in T Daems, S Snacken and D van Zyl Smit (eds), European Penology? (Oxford: Hart 2013)

A Ashworth, 'Kriterien fur die Proportionalitat der Strafe' in W. Frisch, A. von Hirsch and H.-J. Albrecht (eds), Tatproportionalitat (C.F. Muller Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany 2003) [...]

Contribution to book entitled TATPROPORTIONALITAT, edited by W. Frisch, A. von Hirsch and H.-J. Albrecht


ISBN: 3-8114-5145-6

J Roberts, 'L'evolution et consequences de la reforme de la sentence au Canada.' (2001) Sociologie et Societes, 2001.

F Varese, 'La mafia russa in Italia' (2005) Limes. Rivista Italiana di Geopolitica 229

C Hoyle, M Bosworth and M Dempsey, 'Labelling the Victims of Sex Trafficking: Exploring the borderland between rhetoric and reality' (2011) 20 Social & Legal Studies 313

C Hoyle and D Rose, 'Labour, Law and Order' (2001) 72 Political Quarterly 77

I Loader, E Girling and R Sparks, 'Landscapes of Protection: The Past, Present and Futures of Policing in an English Town' in P. Carlen and R. Morgan (eds), Crime Unlimited: Questions for the Twenty-First Century (Palgrave 1999)

AYK Lee, 'Legal Coercion, Respect & Reason-responsive Agency' (2013) Ethical Theory and Moral Practice [...]

DOI: 10.1007/s10677-013-9486-4

Legal coercion seems morally problematic because it is susceptible to the Hegelian objection that it fails to respect individuals in a way that is ‘due to them as men’. But in what sense does legal coercion fail to do so? And what are the grounds for this requirement to respect? This paper is an attempt to answer these questions. It argues that (a) legal coercion fails to respect individuals as reason-responsive agents; and (b) individuals ought to be respected as such in virtue of the fact that they are human beings. Thus it is in this sense that legal coercion fails to treat individuals with the kind of respect ‘due to them as men’.


N Lacey and L H Zedner, 'Legal Constructions of Crime' in M Maguire, R Morgan, and R Reiner (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (5th edn) (Oxford University Press 2012)

Veronika Fikfak and L Lazarus, [...]

This legal research was provided to Judge Malik Hadziomeragic, Judge of the Supreme Court of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and member of Work Group for making a Draft on Amendments to the Law on Criminal Procedure of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Judge Hadziomeragic asked for assistance with several specific research questions about English criminal procedure, as the Work Group is trying to incorporate as much as possible elements of English criminal procedure into its Draft on Amendments.


J Roberts and A. von Hirsch, 'Legislating sentencing principles: the provisions of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 relating to sentencing purposes and the role of previous convictions.' [2004] Criminal Law Review

J Jackson and others, 'Legitimacy and procedural justice in prisons' (2010) 191 Prison Service Journal 4

I Loader and N Walker, 'Liberty, Security and the Responsible State' in D Leighton and S White (eds), Building a Citizen Society: The Emerging Politics of Republican Democracy (Lawrence & Wishart 2008)

L Zedner, 'Liquid Security: Managing the market for crime control' (2006) 6 (2) Criminology and Criminal Justice 267 [...]

This article examines attempts to regulate the growing private security market drawing on the literatures of economic analysis of law and regulation.


ISBN: 1748-8958

J Roberts, 'Listening to the Crime Victim: Evaluating Victim Input at Sentencing and Parole' in M Tonry (ed), Crime and Justice (volume 38) (University of Chicago Press 2009)

J Roberts and T. Gabor, 'Living in the shadow of prison: lessons from the Canadian experience in decarceration.' (2004) British Journal of Criminology

I Loader and N Walker, 'Locating the Public Interest in Transnational Policing' in A Goldsmith and J Sheptycki (eds), Crafting Transnational Policing (Hart 2006)

F Varese, 'Mafia Transplantation' in J. Kornai, B. Rothstein, and S. Rose-Ackerman (eds), Creating Social Trust: Problems of Post-Socialist Transition (Palgrave Macmillan 2004)

J Roberts, 'Mandatory minimum sentences of imprisonment: Exploring the consequences for the sentencing process.' (2001) Osgoode Hall Law Journal, 2001.

M Bosworth and C Hoyle, 'Mapping the Borders of Criminology: Some Concluding Thoughts ' in M Bosworth and C Hoyle (eds), What is Criminology? (Oxford University Press 2011)

L Lazarus, 'Mapping the Right to Security' in Benjamin J Goold and Liora Lazarus (eds), Security and Human Rights (Hart Publishing 2007)

Kate Mitchell, Tamas Szigeti and L Lazarus, [...]

This report explores the existing legal frameworks governing national security programmes of mass surveillance, in light of the recently discovered PRISM and TEMPORA programmes in the United States (US) and United Kingdom. The report was prepared to support the work of Tom Hickman and Ravi Mehta of Blackstone Chambers in August 2013.


J Roberts, M. Feilzer and M. Hough, 'Measuring Public Attitudes to Criminal Justice' in D. Gadd, S. Karstedt and S. Messner (eds), Handbook of Criminological Research Methods (London: Sage Publications. 2011)

J Jackson and B Bradford, 'Measuring public confidence in the police: Is the PSA23 target fit for purpose?' (2010) 4 Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice 241

C Hoyle, Roderick Hill, Karen Cooper and Richard Young, 'Meeting Expectations: The Application of Restorative Justice to the Police Complaints Process' (Occasional Paper No. 21, Centre for Criminological Research 83 2003) [...]

This report presents the findings of a two-year study examining the use of restorative justice within the police complaints system.

ISBN: 0 947811 20 6

F Varese, 'Messages from the Mafia' (2005) London Review of Books 31   [Review]

J Roberts (ed), Mitigation and Aggravation at Sentencing (Cambridge University Press 2011)

J Jackson, A Huq, B Bradford and TR Tyler, 'Monopolizing Force? Police Legitimacy and Public Attitudes Toward the Acceptability of Violence' (2013) Psychology, Public Policy, and Law [...]

DOI: 10.1037/a0033852

Why do people believe that violence is acceptable? In this article, the authors study people’s normative beliefs about the acceptability of violence to achieve social control (as a substitute for the police, for self-protection and the resolution of disputes) and social change (through violent protests and acts to achieve political goals). Addressing attitudes toward violence among young men from various ethnic minority communities in London, the authors find that procedural justice is strongly correlated with police legitimacy, and that positive judgments about police legitimacy are associated with more negative views about the use of violence. They conclude with the idea that police legitimacy has an additional, hitherto unrecognized, empirical property—by constituting the belief that the police monopolise rightful force in society, legitimacy has a “crowding out” effect on positive views of private violence.


K Baker, 'More Harm than Good? The Language of Public Protection' (2010) 49 Howard Journal 42

R Burnett, 'More than accommodation, less than prison: raising the profile of approved premises' (2005) 10 Vista: Perspectives on Probation 2

K Baker and A Sutherland (eds), Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements and Youth Justice (Bristol: Policy Press 2009)

R Condry, 'My World as I Knew it - Gone: The Impact of Crime on Relatives of Serious Offenders' (2007) 33 Safer Society: The Journal of Crime Reduction and Community Safety

I Loader, E Girling and R Sparks, 'Narratives of Decline: Youth, Dis/order and Community in an English "Middletown"' (1998) 38 British Journal of Criminology 388

I Loader and N Walker, 'Necessary Virtues: The Legitimate Place of the State in the Production of Security' in J Wood and B Dupont (eds), Democracy, Society and the Governance of Security (Cambridge University Press 2005)

C Hoyle, Negotiating Domestic Violence: Police, Criminal Justice and Victims (Oxford University Press 1998)

L Zedner, 'Neither safe nor sound? The perils and possibilities of risk' (2006) 48/3 Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 423 [...]

Examines the implications of risk reduction as a basis for penal policy and explores how adjacent social scientific disciplines conceive, deploy, and respond to risk.


ISBN: 1707-7753

R Burnett, 'Never too early? Reflections on research and interventions for early developmental prevention of serious harm' in M Blyth, E Solomon and K Baker (eds), Young People and ?Risk? (Policy Press 2007)

R Young and C Hoyle, 'New Improved Restorative Justice?: Action-Research and the Thames Valley Initiative in Restorative Cautioning' in A von Hirsch, A Bottoms, J Roberts, K Roach and M Schiff (eds), Restorative Justice and Criminal Justice: Competing or Complementary Paradigms? (Hart Publishing 2003) [...]

Empirical research by the authors is used to illuminate the developing practice of police-led restorative justice in the UK.

ISBN: 1-84113-273-X

C Hoyle and Richard Young (eds), New Visions of Crime Victims (Hart Publishing 2002) [...]

An innovative edited collection of original theoretical analyses and previously unpublished empirical research on criminal victimisation. I edited this with Richard Young, wrote a chapter and a preface.

ISBN: 1-84113-280-2

R Burnett, 'Nipping crime in the bud: developmental research and intervention in infancy' (2007) 69 Criminal Justice Matters 14

J Roberts, J. Unnever and F. Cullen, 'Not everyone strongly supports the death penalty: assessing weakly-held attitudes about capital punishment.' (2005) American Journal of Criminal Justice, 2005.

R Burnett and A Stevens, 'Not Of Much Significance (yet): NOMS from the perspective of prison staff' (2007) 172 Prison Service Journal 3

Jennifer Robinson and L Lazarus, [...]

OPBP prepared this submission to inform the mandate of Professor John Ruggie, the Special Representative of the United Nations' Secretary-General on business and human rights. It explores the obstacles victims of corporate human rights abuse face in accessing justice and obtaining remediation through domestic legal systems either in their own countries where the business operations and human rights abuse takes place or in the countries in which the alleged offending transnational corporation is registered or incorporated. It considers these obstacles in relation to 13 specific jurisdictions: Australia, Canada, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the European Union, France, Germany, India, Malaysia, the People's Republic of China, Russia, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States.


I Loader and W de Haan, 'On the Emotions of Crime, Punishment and Social Control' (2002) 6 Theoretical Criminology 243

R Burnett, 'One-to-one ways of promoting desistance: in search of an evidence base' in R. Burnett and C. Roberts (eds), What Works in Probation and Youth Justice: Developing Evidence-Based Practice (Willan Publishing 2004)

L Zedner, 'Opportunity makes the Thief-Taker: the influence of economic analysis on crime control' in T Newburn and P Rock (eds), The Politics of Crime Control (Oxford University Press 2006) [...]

An appraisal of the impact of economic analysis/rational choice theory on criminal justice politics and Home Office policy making.


ISBN: 0-19-920840-9

N Lacey, 'Out of the Witches\' Cauldron?: Reinterpreting the Context and Re-assessing the Significance of the Hart-Fuller Debate' in Peter Cane (ed), The Hart-Fuller Debate Fifty Years On (Hart Publishing 2010)

A Myhill and B Bradford, 'Overcoming cop culture? Organizational justice and police officers’ attitudes toward the public' (2013) 36 Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 338 [...]

DOI: 10.1108/13639511311329732

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to test theories of organizational justice in the context of a police agency. Design/methodology/approach – Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to analyze data from a survey of officers in a police force in England. Findings – The SEM showed that organizational justice was associated with positive attitudes towards serving members of the public. This relationship was mediated by commitment to elements of community policing and, for community police officers, by general satisfaction with the organization. Practical implications – The findings suggest that police managers committed to implementing process-based policing policies may need to ensure their organizations also implement internal policies and practices that are procedurally fair. Originality/value – This study is one of the first to apply the well established literature on organizational justice to the context of policing, and the first to examine the impact of organizational justice on alignment with community policing and the service model.


Miles Jackson, Patricia Jimenez Kwast and L Lazarus, [...]

This research concerned the content of the writ of habeus corpus as it existed in the UK in 1789


J Roberts, 'Past and Present Crimes: The Role of Previous Convictions at Sentencing' in J. Ryberg and C. Tamburrini (eds), Recidivist Punishments: The Philosopher’s View. (New York: Taylor and Francis. 2011)

F Varese and Smith, A., 'Payment, Protection and Punishment: the Role of Information and Reputation in the Mafia' (2001) 13 Rationality and Society 387 [...]

Although listed as a second author (for alphabetic reasons), I have contributed the main idea, empirical motivation and information, and the basic game structure.


ISBN: 1043-4631

M Bosworth, 'Penal Moderation in the US: Yes We Can?' (2011) 10 Criminology & Public Policy 335

R G Hood, 'Penal policy and criminological challenges in the new millennium' (2001) 34 (1) Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 1 [...]

Given as a keynote address at the Annual Conference of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology, 2000


I Loader, 'Penal Policy Takes a Regressive Turn' (2011) New Statesman ('The Staggers' blog)

J Roberts, Dave Indermaur, Mike Hough and Loretta Stalans, Penal Populism and Public Opinion. Lessons from Five Countries. (Oxford University Press. 2003) [...]

This mongraph was then first two explore the world-wide phenonmenon of penal populism, drawing upon criminal policy developments in five jurisdictions. It has been positively reviewed in the Australia and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, Alberta law Review and Canadian Journal of Criminology.

ISBN: 0-19-513623-3

J Roberts, M. Hough and A. Ashworth, 'Personal Mitigation, Public Opinion and Sentencing Guidelines in England and Wales' [2011] Criminal Law Review

N Lacey, 'Philosophy, Political Morality and History: Explaining the Enduring Resonance of the Hart-Fuller Debate' (2008) 83 New York University Law Review 1059

I Loader, 'Playing with Fire?: Democracy and the Emotions of Crime and Punishment' in S Karstedt, I Loader and H Strang (eds), Emotions, Crime and Justice (Hart 2011)

A Ashworth, 'Plea-Bargaining, Pragmatism and Rights' in H. Muller-Dietz, E. Muller, K.-L. Kunz, H. Radtke, G. Britz, C. Momsen, H. Koriath (eds), Festschrift fur Heike Jung (Nomos 2007) [...]

Exploring the compatibility of plea bargaining with the presumption of innocence.


ISBN: 978-3-8329-2537-6

I Loader, 'Plural Policing and Democratic Governance' (2000) 9 Social and Legal Studies 323

J Roberts, 'Points of Departure: Reflections on Sentencing Outside the Definitive Guidelines Ranges ' [2012] Criminal Law Review

L Zedner and I Loader, 'Police beyond Law' (2007) vol.10, no.1 New Criminal Law Review 142 [...]

Critical review essay of Markus Dubber The Police Power: Patriarchy and the Foundations of American Government.


ISBN: 1933-4192

I Loader and L Zedner, 'Police Beyond Law? (Review Essay)' (2007) 10 New Criminal Law Review 142   [Review]

I Loader, 'Police commissioners will make the men in uniform more responsive to the public they serve ' (2012)

B Bradford, J Jackson and M Hough, 'Police futures and legitimacy: Redefining ‘good policing’' in J Brown (ed), The Future of Policing (Routledge 2013)

B Bradford, J Jackson and M Hough, 'Police legitimacy in action: lessons for theory and practice' in M Reisig and R Kane (eds), Oxford handbook of police and policing (Oxford University Press 2014) (forthcoming)

C Hoyle and A Sanders, 'Police Response to Domestic Violence: from victim choice to victim empowerment?' (2000) 40 British Journal of Criminology

I Loader, 'Police Scandal and Reform?: Can we Break out of More of the Same?' (2014) Left Foot Forward

C Hoyle, 'Policing and Restorative Justice' in G Johnstone and D Van Ness (eds), Handbook of Restorative Justice (Willan Publishing 2007)

B Bradford, 'Policing and social identity: procedural justice, inclusion and cooperation between police and public' (2014) 24 Policing and Society 22 [...]

DOI: 10.1080/10439463.2012.724068

Accounts of the social meaning of policing and of the relationship between police and citizen converge on the idea that police behaviour carries important identity-relevant information. Opinions of and ideas about the police are implicated in the formation of social identities that relate to the social groups it represents – nation, state and community. Procedural justice theory suggests that judgements about the fairness of the police will be the most important factor in such processes. Fairness promotes a sense of inclusion and value, while unfairness communicates denigration and exclusion. Furthermore, positive social identities in relation to the police should on this account promote cooperation with it. This article presents an empirical test of these ideas in the context of the British policing. Data from a survey of young Londoners are used to show that perceptions of police fairness are indeed associated with social identity, and in turn social identity can be linked to cooperation. Yet these relationships were much stronger among those with multiple national identities. Police behaviour appeared more identity relevant for people who felt that they were citizens of a non-UK country, but for those who identified only as British there was a weaker link between procedural fairness and social identity, and here legitimacy judgements were the main ‘drivers’ of cooperation. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.


I Loader and A Mulcahy, Policing and the Condition of England: Memory, Politics and Culture (OUP 2003)

I Loader, 'Policing and the Social: Questions of Symbolic Power' (1997) 48 British Journal of Sociology 1

I Loader and N Walker, 'Policing as a Public Good: Reconstituting the Connections Between Policing and the State' (2001) 5 Theoretical Criminology 9

L Zedner, 'Policing before and after the Police: the historical antecedents of contemporary crime control' (2006) 46 British Journal of Criminology 78 [...]

Pre-published since early 2005 on Oxford University Website. Print version should appear early 2006.Compares current developments in the privatisation of security with 18thC markets in policing and prosecution.


ISBN: 0007-0955

I Loader, 'Policing Unlimited?: Security, Civic Governance and the Public Good' in K van der Vijver and J Terpstra (eds), Urban Safety: Problems, Governance and Strategies (IPIT 2004)

I Loader, 'Policing, Recognition and Belonging' (2006) 605 The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 201

I Loader, 'Policing, Securitisation and Democratisation in Europe' in T Newburn and R Sparks (eds), Policing, Securitisation and Democratisation in Europe (Willan 2004)

I Loader, 'Policing, Securitization and Democratization in Europe' (2002) 2 Criminology and Criminal Justice 125

J Donoghue, 'Policy & Practice: Variation in the Use of Antisocial Behaviour Orders (ASBOs) in Scotland', paper presented at The Criminal Justice Social Network Development Centre, Perth. 21 November 2006

J Donoghue, 'Policy, Practice & Potential Pitfalls: Antisocial Behaviour Orders (ASBOs) & The Court System', paper presented at The Social Research Association, Edinburgh. 25 January 2007

N Lacey, 'Political Systems and Criminal Justice: The Prisoners\' Dilemma After the Coalition ' (2012) Current Legal Problems

J. Ryberg and J Roberts (eds), Popular Punishment: The Normative Significance of Public Opinion for Penal Theory (Oxford University Press 2013)

L Lazarus, 'Positive Obligations and Criminal Justice: Duties to Protect or Coerce' in Julian Roberts and Lucia Zedner (eds), Principled Approaches to Criminal Law and Criminal Justice: Essays in Honour of Professor Andrew Ashworth (Oxford University Press 2012) [...]

Human rights advocates internationally, and supporters of socio-economic rights, have battled for many years to get States and courts to accept that human rights give rise to positive obligations upon States and that such obligations ought to be justiciable in principle. Much of the rhetoric deployed in this campaign has focused on the importance of protecting and respecting basic human needs and capabilities, and ensuring that individuals enjoy a basic level of subsistence in order to secure the enjoyment of all rights. In the context of criminal justice and criminal law: positive obligations are very often cast as duties on the State to protect individuals from the criminal acts of others (protective duties). Very little attention is paid however to the potential for such positive obligations to give rise to what I term ‘coercive duties’. In other words, duties upon the State to coerce individuals through the criminal law, or criminal justice mechanisms, in the name of protecting others from their criminal acts. The coercive aspect of positive obligations comes more sharply into focus when we look at the rhetoric around, and judicial enforcement of ,the right to security. But the development of coercive duties are evident in the positive aspect of other rights too. This chapter explores the ambiguity involved in the growing development of positive rights in the field of criminal law and criminal justice. It dwells briefly on the emerging right to security case law and rhetoric internationally, and goes on to examine cases within the UK and ECHR. The thesis of the chapter is that while some protective duties arising from human rights may be a positive development, the extension of coercive duties on the State to coerce others in the name of another individual’s rights is an overseen and more pernicious part of this development of human rights. The chapter will end by exploring how we reconcile coercive duties arising out of human rights with opposing negative rights protections, or even other protective duties.


R Burnett, 'Post-corrections reintegration: prisoner resettlement and desistance from crime' in J R Adler and J M Gray (eds), Forensic Psychology 2nd edition (Willan 2010)

A Ashworth, Postitive Obligations in Criminal Law (Hart Publishing 2013) [...]

A series of essays on issues of principle in criminal law, with two new essays -- one on criminalizing omissions, and the other on human rights and positive obligations to create particular offences.


ISBN: 978-1-84946-505-2

L Zedner, 'Pre-crime and post-criminology?' (2006) 11 (2) Theoretical Criminology 261

L Zedner, 'Pre-crime and pre-punishment: a health warning' (2010) Criminal Justice Matters

J Roberts, 'Pre-trial Custody, Terms of imprisonment and theConditional Sentence: Crediting 'Dead Time' to effect 'Regime Change' in sentencing' (2005) 9 Canadian Criminal Law Review 191

KF Aas and M Bosworth, 'Preface' in KF Aas and M Bosworth (eds), The Borders of Punishment: Citizenship, Crime Control and Social Exclusion (Oxford University Press 2013) (forthcoming)

A Ashworth and L Zedner, 'Prevention and Criminalization: Justifications and Limits' (2012) 15 New Criminal Law Review 542

A Ashworth, L Zedner and P Tomlin (eds), Prevention and the Limits of the Criminal Law (Oxford University Press 2013) [...]

Edited volume of essays by leading criminal lawyers, political theorists and philosophers on criminalization for the purposes of preventing harmful wrongdoing.


A Ashworth, L.H. Zedner and P.R. Tomlin (eds), Prevention and the Limits of the Criminal Law (Oxford University Press 2013) [...]

An edited volume (with editors' introduction) on the insections between the criminal law and preventive justice, presenting arguments from leading international scholars.


ISBN: 978-0-19-965676-9

L Zedner, 'Preventive justice or pre-punishment? The case of control orders ' (2007) 60 Current Legal Problems 174

L Zedner and Andrew Ashworth, 'Preventive Orders: a problem of undercriminalization' in RA Duff, L Farmer, S Marshall, M Renzo & V Tadros (eds), The Boundaries of the Criminal Law (Oxford University Press 2010)

A Ashworth and Lucia Zedner, 'Preventive Orders: a Problem of Undercriminalization?' in R.A. Duff, L. Farmer, S.E. Marshall, M. Renzo & V. Tadros (eds), The Boundaries of the Criminal Law (Oxford University Press 2010) [...]

An examination of the nature of civil preventive orders, and an argument that they are anomalous and that, given their effects, they should attract all the safeguards of criminal proceedings.


ISBN: 978-0-19-960055-7

J Roberts and A von Hirsch (eds), Previous Convictions at Sentencing: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives (Hart Publishing 2010)

A Pearson and others, 'Primary Care Contact Prior to Suicide in Individuals with Mental Illness' (2009) 59 British Journal of General Practice 825

L. Zedner and J Roberts (eds), Principled Approaches to Criminal Law and Criminal Justice: Essays in Honour of Andrew Ashworth. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2012)

A Ashworth, A von Hirsch and J Roberts (eds), Principled Sentencing (Third Edition) (Hart Publishing 2009)

L Zedner and J Roberts (eds), Principles and Values in Criminal Law and Criminal Justice: Essays in Honour of Andrew Ashworth (Oxford University Press 2012) [...]

Festschrift or collection of essays in honour of Professor Andrew Ashworth, Vinerian Chair of English Law, University of Oxford, with a substantial Introductory Essay by the Editors.


ISBN: 978-0-19-969679-6

A Ashworth, Principles of Criminal Law (4th edn, Oxford University Press 2003) [...]

New edition of established text


ISBN: 0-19-925980-1

A Ashworth, Principles of Criminal Law (Oxford University Press 2009)

A Ashworth and J.C.N. Horder, Principles of Criminal Law (7th edn, Oxford University Press 2013) [...]

An updated version of my text on criminal law, co-authored for the first time.


ISBN: 978-0-19-967268-4

A Ashworth, Principles of Criminal Law, 5th edition (Oxford University Press 2006) [...]

New edition of text on criminal law.


ISBN: 0-19-928114-9

A Ashworth, 'Principles, Pragmatism and the Law Commission's Recommendations on Homicide Law Reform' [2007] Criminal Law Review 333 [...]

Appraisal of the structure and detail of recent Law Commission recommendations.


ISBN: 0011 135X

M Bosworth and E Kaufman, 'Prison and National Identity: Citizenship, Punishment and the Sovereign State.' in D Scott (ed), Why Prison? (Cambridge University Press 2013) (forthcoming)

R Condry, 'Prisoners and their Families' in B. Crewe and J. Bennett (eds), The Prisoner (Routledge 2011)

R Burnett and S Maruna, 'Prisoners as Citizens' Advisers: the OxCAB-Springhill Partnership and its wider implications' (2004) Esmee Fairbairn Foundation 86

J Roberts and R. Gebotys, 'Prisoners of Isolation: research on the effects of administrative segregation.' (2001) Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 2001.

M Bosworth, 'Prisons' (2008) Oxford University Press

M Bosworth and S Palmer, 'Prisons' in W. DeKeseredy and M. Dragiewicz (eds), Handbook of Critical Criminology (Routledge 2012)

I Loader, 'Private Security and the Demand for Protection in Contemporary Britain' (1997) 7 Policing & Society 143

R Burnett, 'Probation' in R Canton and D Hancock (eds), Dictionary of Probation and Offender Management (Willan 2007)

M Hough and others, 'Procedural justice trust and institutional legitimacy' (2010) 4 Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice 203

C Hoyle, R Young and R Hill, 'Proceed with Caution: An Evaluation of the Thames Valley Police Initiative in Restorative Cautioning' (Joseph Rowntree Foundation 85 2002) [...]

This report on the findings of a three-year study conducted in the Thames Valley provides unique insight into the development and achievements of the first large-scale restorative justice programme in the UK.

ISBN: 1-84263-071-7

K Baker and B Wilkinson, 'Professional Risk Taking and Defensible Decisions' in H. Kemshall and B. Wilkinson (eds), Good Practice in Assessing Risk: Current Knowledge, Issues and Approaches (London: Jessica Kingsley 2011)

I Loader and R Muir, 'Progressive Police and Crime Commissioners: An Opportunity for the Centre Left' (London: Institute for Public Policy Research ('IPPR Original') 2011)

A Ashworth and Andrew von Hirsch, Proportionate Sentencing: Exploring the Principles (Oxford University Press 2005) [...]

An exploration and refinement of the application of the proportionality principle in the theory of punishment and sentencing.


ISBN: 0-19-927260-3

N Lacey, 'Psychologising Jekyll, Demonising Hyde: The Strange Case of Criminal Responsibility' (2010) 4 Criminal Law and Philosophy 110

TR Tyler, J Jackson and B Bradford, 'Psychology of procedural justice and cooperation' in Gerben Bruinsma and David Weisburd (eds), Encyclopedia of criminology and criminal justice (Springer 2013) (forthcoming)

J Roberts, 'Public Attitudes to Community-based Sanctions' in Changing Attitudes to Punishment (Willan Publishing 2002)

J Roberts, N. Crutcher and P. Verbrugge, 'Public Attitudes to Sentencing in Canada: Exploring Recent Findings' (2007) Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice

J Roberts, M Hough, J Jacobson and J Bredee, 'Public attitudes to sentencing offenders convicted of offences involving death by driving' [2008] Criminal Law Review 525

J Roberts, M Hough, J Jacobson and N Moon, 'Public Attitudes to Sentencing Purposes and Sentencing Factors: An Empirical Analysis' [2009] Criminal Law Review 771

J Roberts and M. Hough, 'Public Attitudes to the Criminal Jury: A Review of International Trends' (2011) The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice

J Roberts, M. Hough and J. Jackson, 'Public Attitudes toward the Lay Magistracy and the Sentencing Council Guidelines: The Effects of Information on Opinion ' (2012) British Journal of Criminology

B. Mitchell and J Roberts, 'Public Attitudes Towards the Mandatory Life Sentence for Murder in England and Wales: Putting Received Wisdom to the Empirical Test. ' [2011] Criminal Law Review

J Roberts, 'Public Confidence in Criminal Justice in Canada: A Comparative and Contextual Analysis' (2007) Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice

I Loader and R Sparks, Public Criminology? (Routledge 2010)

B Bradford, EA Stanko and J Jackson, 'Public encounters with the police: On the use of public opinion surveys to improve contact and confidence' (2009) 3 Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice 139

J Roberts and Mike Hough, 'Public Knowledge and Public Opinion of Sentencing' in Sentencing and Society: International Perspectives (Ashgate Publishing 2002)

J Roberts and R. Hastings, 'Public Opinion and Crime Prevention' in D. Farrington and B. Welsh (eds), Oxford Handbook of Crime Prevention. (Oxford University Press 2012)

J Roberts and R. Hastings, 'Public Opinion and Crime Prevention: A Review of International Findings' (2007) Revue de l’Institut pour la Prevention de la Criminalite,

J Roberts and L. Stalans, 'Public Opinion and Criminal Justice' in Encyclopedia of Criminology (Fitzroy-Dearborn 2004)

J Roberts, 'Public opinion and mandatory sentences of imprisonment: a review of international findings.' (2003) Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 2003.

J Roberts, 'Public Opinion and Sentencing Policy' in S. Rex and M. Tonry (eds), Reform and Punishment: the future of sentencing (Willan Publishing 2002)

J Roberts, 'Public Opinion and the Administration of Justice: Research Findings across two decades.' in Public Opinion and the Administration of Justice (Politea 2005)

J Roberts, 'Public Opinion and the Evolution of Juvenile Justice Policy in the Western world.' in Youth Crime and Youth Justice: Comparative and Cross-National Perspectives (University of Chicago Press 2004)

J Roberts and M. Hough, 'Public Opinion and the Jury: A Review of International Findings. ' (London: Ministry of Justice 2009)

B. Mitchell and J Roberts, 'Public Opinion and the Law of Murder' (London: Nuffield Foundation 2010)

J Roberts, 'Public Opinion and Youth Justice' (2004) 2004 (31) Crime and Justice 495

R G Hood and F Seemungal, 'Public Opinion on the Mandatory Death Penalty in Trinidad' (Death Penalty Project, Oxford Centre for Criminology 2011)

M. Hough and J Roberts, 'Public Opinion, Crime, and Criminal Justice' in R. Morgan and M. Maguire (eds), Oxford Handbook of Criminology. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2012)

M. Hough and J Roberts, 'Public Opinion, Crime, and Criminal Justice: The British Crime Survey and Beyond' in M. Hough and M. Maxfield (eds), Surveying Crime in the 21st Century. Crime Prevention Studies. Volume 22. (Cullompton: Willan Publishing and New York: Criminal Justice Press. 2007)

J Roberts and Mike Hough, 'Public Opinion, Sentencing and Parole: International Trends' in Psychology in the Courts (University of Toronto Press. 2001)

J Roberts, 'Public Perceptions of Corrections' in Corrections in Canada ( 2001) [...]

Review of public attitudes to corrections

J Roberts, 'Public Perceptions of the Criminal Justice System in England and Wales. What does the Public Really think?' in S. Khan (ed), (Fabian Society 2011)

L Lazarus, BJ Goold and G Swiney, 'Public Protection, Proportionality and the Search for Balance' (Ministry of Justice Research Series 10/07 2007)

AYK Lee, 'Public Wrongs and the Criminal Law' (2013) Criminal Law and Philosophy [...]

DOI: 10.1007/s11572-013-9231-z

This paper is about how best to understand the notion of ‘public wrongs’ in the longstanding idea that crimes are public wrongs. By contrasting criminal law with the civil laws of torts and contracts, it argues that ‘public wrongs’ should not be understood merely as wrongs that properly concern the public, but more specifically as those which the state, as the public, ought to punish. It then briefly considers the implications that this has on criminalization.


J Roberts, 'Punishing Persistence: Explaining the Enduring Appeal of the Recidivist Sentencing Premium' (2008) British Journal of Criminology 468

J Roberts, Punishing Persistent Offenders (Oxford University Press 2008)

J Roberts, 'Punishing, More or Less: Exploring Mitigating and Aggravating Factors at Sentencing' in J.V. Roberts (ed), Mitigation and Aggravation at Sentencing (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2011)

L Zedner, 'Punishment and the Plurality of Privacy Interests' in E Claes and A Duff (eds), Privacy and the Criminal Law ( 2006) [...]

Questions the status of privacy as a right and attempts to articulate the range of interests that arise when reference is made to privacy.


ISBN: 90-5095-545-2

N Lacey, 'Punishment in the Perspective of Comparative Political Economy' (2012) 44 Kriminologische Journal 9-31 9

J Roberts and J. Sprott, 'Punitive and moderate penal policies: explaining divergent approaches to reform in Canada and the United States.' (2005) International Journal of Comparative Criminology, 2005.

L Zedner, 'Putting Crime back on the Criminological Agenda' in M Bosworth & C Hoyle (eds), What is Criminology? (Oxford University Press 2011)

M Bosworth and B Kellezi, 'Quality of Life in Detention: Results from the MQLD Questionnaire Data Collected in IRC Yarl’s Wood, IRC Tinsley House and IRC Brook House, August 2010 – June 2011.' (Centre for Criminology 2012)

J Roberts and T. Gabor, 'Race and Crime: A Critique' in R. Brym (ed), Society in Question. (Toronto: Thomson Nelson. 2007)

J Roberts, 'Race, crime and the collection of criminal justice statistics' in Crimes of Colour. Racialization and the Criminal Justice System (Broadview Press 2001)

M Bosworth and Jeanne Flavin (eds), Race, gender and punishment: From colonialism to the war on terror (Rutgers University Press 2007) [...]

I contribute a chapter, plus a co-written introduction and conclusion. This is a collection of original essays on the history, theory and contemporary format of race, gender and punishment in the US.

ISBN: 0-8135-3904-8

I Loader, 'Re-Balancing the Criminal Justice System?: A Response to Tony Blair' (2006)

A Ashworth, 'Re-Drawing the Boundaries of Entrapment' [2002] Criminal Law Review 161 [...]

Evaluation of impact of HL decision in LOOSELEY


ISBN: 0011-135X

J Roberts, 'Re-Examining First Offender Discounts at Sentencing.' in J.V. Roberts and A. Von Hirsch (eds), Previous Convictions at Sentencing: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives (Oxford: Hart Publishing. 2010)

L Lazarus, Chris McCrudden and Nigel Bowles (eds), Reasoning Rights: Comparative Judicial Engagement (Hart Publishing 2014) (forthcoming) [...]

This collection examines judicial engagement with human rights from a comparative perspective. It is divided into four sections: proportionality, security and human rights, religion and human rights and socio-economic rights.


M Bosworth and E Carrabine, 'Reassessing Resistance: Gender, Race and Sexuality in Prison' (2001) 3(4) Punishment and Society 501

J Roberts and P. Healy, 'Recent Developments in Conditional Sentencing.' (2001) Canadian Bar Review, 2001.

M. Manikis and J Roberts, 'Recognizing Ancillary Harm at Sentencing: A Proportionate and Balanced Response' (2011) Canadian Criminal Law Review

Laura Hilly, Lawrence Hill-Cawthorne and L Lazarus,

N Lacey, C Wells and O Quick, Reconstructing Criminal Law, Third Edition (Cambridge University Press 2003)

I Loader, T Lanning and R Muir, 'Redesigning Justice: Reducing Crime Through Justice Reinvestment' (London: Institute for Public Policy Research 2011)

I Loader, 'Redrawing the blue line' (2010) The Guardian

J Roberts, 'Reducing Prison Populations: Exploring Alternative Strategies' (2005) Reform: A Journal of National and International Law Reform

R Burnett, S Bachelor and F McNeill, 'Reducing reoffending: lessons from psychotherapy and counselling' (2005) 61 Criminal Justice Matters 32

J Roberts, 'Reducing the Use of Custody as a Sanction: A Review of Recent International Experiences' in M. Hough, R. Allen and E. Solomon (eds), Tackling Prison Overcrowding. Build More Prisons? Sentence Fewer Offenders? (Bristol: The Policy Press 2008)

J Roberts, 'Reducing the Use of Custody as a Sanction: A Review of Recent Strategies' (2006) Judicial Studies Institute Journal, 2006

L Zedner, 'Reflections on Criminal Justice as a Social Institution' in D Downes, D Hobbs & T Newburn (eds), The Eternal Recurrence of Crime and Control: Essays in Honour of Paul Rock (Oxford University Press 2010)

AYK Lee, 'Reflective Equilibrium: The Role of Public Opinion in Normative Theoretical Work' (2013) Criminology at Oxford

J Roberts, 'Reforming Conditional Sentencing: Evaluating Recent Legislative Proposals' (2006) Criminal Law Quarterly

J Roberts, 'Reforming Sentencing and Parole in Canada' in Penal Reform in Overcrowded Times (Oxford University Press 2001)

N Lacey, John Braithwaite, Christine Parker and Colin Scott (eds), Regulating Law (Oxford University Press 2004)

L Zedner, 'Rehabilitation' in Peter Cane & Joanne Conaghan (eds), The New Oxford Companion to Law (Oxford University Press 2008)

R Burnett, 'Rehabilitation' and 'Early Release Schemes'' in Y Jewkes and J Bennett (eds), and ?Early Release Schemes? (Willan 2007)

M Bosworth and I Loader, 'Reinventing Penal Parsimony' (2010) 14 Special Issue, Theoretical Criminology

M Bosworth, 'Reinventing Penal Parsimony: An Introduction' (2010) 14 Theoretical Criminology

E. Player, J. Jacobson, J Roberts, M. Hough and J. Rowbottom, 'Remanded in Custody: An Analysis of Recent trends in England and Wales' (2010) The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice

R Burnett and G Farrell, 'Reported and Unreported Racial Incidents in Prisons, Occasional Paper, No. 14' (1994) University of Oxford Centre for Criminological Research

C Hoyle, M Bosworth and M Dempsey, 'Researching Trafficked Women: On Institutional Resistance and the Limits to Feminist Reflexivity' (2011) 17 Qualitative Inquiry

M Bosworth, C Hoyle and M Dempsey, 'Researching Trafficked Women: Some Thoughts on Methodology' (2011) 17 Qualitative Inquiry 769

F Varese and M. Yaish, 'Resolute Heroes: the Rescue of Jews during the Nazi Occupation of Europe' (2005) 1.91736111111111 Archives Européenes de Sociologie 153

K Bullock and R Condry, 'Responding to denial, minimization and blame in correctional settings: The ‘real world’ implications of offender neutralizations' (2013) 10 European Journal of Criminology 572 [...]

DOI: 10.1177/1477370813475391

This article examines ‘real-world’ implications of offender neutralizations. Drawing on empirical evidence derived from a study of the operation of community-based cognitive-behavioural programmes for perpetrators of domestic violence, it focuses on the implications, for offenders, of displaying neutralizations in correctional treatment settings. This article draws attention to the complex relationship between neutralization and correctional group work practice. First, it demonstrates that neutralization of offending does not always have the negative implications for offenders that have been assumed by some commentators. Neutralization may not preclude enrolment on to a correctional programme, is not always challenged in a confrontational way by practitioners and does not automatically result in suspension and the application of more punitive criminal sanctions. Second, the article demonstrates the difficulties that practitioners and participants face in tackling neutralizations in this context. Our findings suggest a need to rethink the central role that neutralizations play in aspects of contemporary criminal justice practice.


A Ashworth, 'Responsibilities, Rights and Restorative Justice' (2002) 42 British Journal of Criminology 578 [...]

DOI: 10.1093/bjc/42.3.578

Critical assessment of principles and practices of restorative justice


ISBN: 1464-3529

J Roberts, A. von Hirsch, A. Bottoms and K. Roach, Restorative and Criminal Justice. Competing or Reconcilable Paradigms? (Hart Publishing Oxford. 2003) [...]

This edited volume explores the relationship between criminal and restorative justice. It contains contributions from many of the leading scholars in the field from around the world.

ISBN: 1-84113-273-X

C Hoyle (ed), Restorative Justice (Critical Concepts series) (Routledge 2009)

C Hoyle, 'Restorative Justice and other New Penal Patterns, Conference Rapporteur's Report to the Ditchley Foundation' (Ditchley Conference Document D00/07 2000)

C Hoyle and Richard Young, 'Restorative Justice and Punishment' in S. McConville (ed), The Use of Punishment (Willan Publishing 2003) [...]

This chapter considers the development of restorative justice, its applications, its relationship with state justice, its relationship with vengeance and punishment, and some interconnected philosophical issues.

ISBN: 1-84392-033-6

J Roberts and L. Stalans, 'Restorative justice and the sentencing process; exploring the views of the public.' (2004) Social Justice Research

J Roberts, Mike Hough and L.Stalans, 'Restorative Justice and the Views of the Public.' (2005) Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, 2005.

J Roberts and Kent Roach, 'Restorative Justice in Canada: From Sentencing Circles to Sentencing Principles' in A. Von Hirsch, J.V. Roberts, A. Bottoms, K. Roach, K. and M. Schiff, M. (eds), Restorative and Criminal Justice (Hart Publishing 2003)

C Hoyle, 'Restorative Justice in the Thames Valley: Changes in the Complaints and Discipline Process,' (2001) 133 Prison Service Journal 37 [...]

A description of the recent move towards using restorative justice for the complaints and discipline process in the Thames Valley.

ISBN: 0300-3558

C Hoyle, 'Restorative Justice Policing in Thames Valley' (2009) Journal of Police Studies vol 2009-2(11) Special Issue on Restorative Policing by L. G. Moor, T. Peters, P. Ponsaers and J. Shapland (eds) 189

C Hoyle, 'Restorative Justice, Victims and the Police' in T Newburn (ed), Handbook of Policing, 2nd edn. (Willan Publishing 2008) [...]

This chapter explores the ways in which the police in the UK use the principles of restorative justice in their encounters with victims and offenders, adult and juvenile. It argues that there are practical and philosophical objections to the police involvement in restorative justice, and that these, at lesat in part, explain wy there seems to be less restorative activity in the UK in 2008 that there was at teh start of the twenty-first century

ISBN: 978-1-84392-323-7

C Hoyle and Richard Young, 'Restorative Justice, Victims and the Police' in T Newburn (ed), Handbook of Policing (Willan Publishing. 2003) [...]

This chapter explores the various ways in which the police are experimenting with the principles of restorative justice in the United Kingdom and draws on empirical research conducted by the authors.

ISBN: 1-84392-020-4

C Hoyle and Richard Young, 'Restorative Justice: Assessing the Prospects and Pitfalls' in M McConville and G Wilson (eds), The Handbook of the Criminal Justice Process (Oxford University Press 2002) [...]

An assessment of the prospects and pitfalls of restorative justice.

ISBN: 0-19-925395-1

N Preston, C Hoyle and R Young, 'Restoring the Faith' (1999) Police Review

I Loader, 'Restraining Order' (2008) Progress

J Roberts and L. Stalans, 'Retribution' in Encyclopedia of Criminology (Fitzroy-Dearborn 2004)

R Burnett, 'Review of Vanstone: Supervising Offenders in the Community' (2007) 9 Punishment and Society 211

L Lazarus, 'Rights Persuasion: A response to Jeremy Waldron' in Kate Tunstall (ed), Self Evident Truths?: Human Rights and the Enlightenment (Bloomsbury 2012) [...]

Response to Jeremy Waldron's Amnesty Lecture on Hate Speech.


L Zedner, 'Risiko, Sicherheit und Terrorismus: Drei Konzepte auf der Suche nach einer akademishen Disziplin' (2012) 10 Kriminiologisches Journal 30

K Baker and G Kelly, 'Risk Assessment and Young People' in H. Kemshall and B. Wilkinson (eds), Good Practice in Assessing Risk: Current Knowledge, Issues and Approaches (London: Jessica Kingsley 2011)

K Baker, 'Risk in practice: systems and practitioner judgement' in M. Blyth, E. Solomon and K. Baker (eds), Young People and 'Risk' (Bristol: Policy Press 2007)

K Baker, 'Risk, Uncertainty and Public Protection: Assessment of Young People Who Offend' (2008) 38 British Journal of Social Work 1463

A Ashworth, 'Robbery Re-Assessed' [2002] Criminal Law Review 851 [...]

Critical analysis of law and sentencing on robbery


ISBN: 0011-135X

R Condry, 'Secondary Victims and Secondary Victimization' in Shlomo Giora Shoham, Paul Knepper and Martin Kett (eds), International Handbook of Victimology (Taylor and Francis 2010)

L Zedner, 'Securing Liberty in the face of Terror: Reflections from Criminal Justice' (2005) 32 Journal of Law and Society 507

C Hoyle, 'Securing Restorative Justice for the 'Non-Participating' Victim' in Carolyn Hoyle and Richard Young (eds), New Visions of Crime Victims (Hart Publishing 2002)

L Zedner, Security (Routledge Key Ideas in Criminology Series 2009)

L Zedner, 'Security' in A Wakefield & R Wild (eds), The Sage Dictionary of Policing (SAGE 2008)

L Lazarus and BJ Goold (eds), Security and Human Rights (Hart 2007)

L Lazarus and BJ Goold, 'Security and Human Rights: The Search for a Language of Reconcilliation' in Benjamin J Goold and Liora Lazarus (eds), Security and Human Rights (Hart Publishing 2007)

I Loader, 'Security, Anti-Security, Positive Security' in M Schuilenburg, R van Steden and B Oude Breuil (eds), Positive Criminology: Unexplored Thoughts on Security (The Hague: Eleven Publishers 2014)

A Ashworth, 'Security, Terrorism and the Value of Human Rights' in Benjamin J Goold and Liora Lazarus (eds), Security and Human Rights (Hart 2007) [...]

Essay exploring the structure of the European Convention on Human Rights and the role of public protection in human rights law.


ISBN: 978-1-84113-608-0

L Zedner, 'Security, the State, and the Citizen: The Changing Architecture of Crime Control' (2010) 13 New Criminal Law Review 379–403

L Zedner, 'Seeking Security by Eroding Rights: The Side-stepping of Due Process' in L. Lazarus and B. Goold (eds), Security and Human Rights (Hart Publishing 2007)

M Bosworth, 'Self-harm in women's prisons' (2006) 5 Criminology and Public Policy 157 [...]

This is a brief overview of the literature and issues associated with self-harm in women's prisons. It served as an introduction to a longer paper by someone else and a response both of which I commissioned and edited for the journal. The journal is one of the official publications of the American Society of Criminology.

A Ashworth, 'Sentencing' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 3rd Edn, (Oxford University Press 2002) [...]

Review of law and research on sentencing


ISBN: 0-19-925609-8

A Ashworth, Sentencing and Criminal Justice (Cambridge University Press 2005) [...]

This edition was revised extensively, to analyze and criticize the major changes introduced by the Criminal Justice Act 2003, as well as other legislative changes and case-law.


ISBN: 978-0-521-67405-8

A Ashworth, Sentencing and Criminal Justice (5th edn, Cambridge University Press 2010)

A Manson, P Healy, J Roberts and D Ives (eds), Sentencing and Penal Policy in Canada (Second Edition) (Emond Montgomery 2008)

A Ashworth, 'Sentencing and Sensitivity' in L. Zedner and A. Ashworth (eds), The Criminological Foundations Of Public Policy (Oxford University Press 2003)

B. Mitchell and J Roberts, 'Sentencing for Murder: Exploring Public Knowledge and Public Opinion in England and Wales' (2011) British Journal of Criminology

J Roberts, 'Sentencing Guidelines and Judicial Discretion: Evolution of the Duty of Courts to Comply in England and Wales' (2011) British Journal of Criminology

A Ashworth, 'Sentencing Guidelines and the Sentencing Council' [2010] Criminal Law Review 389 [...]

A critical assessment of the provisions of the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 relating to sentencing guidelines and the new Sentencing Council.


J Roberts and A. Rafferty, 'Sentencing Guidelines in England and Wales: Exploring the New Format' [2011] Criminal Law Review

J Roberts, 'Sentencing Guidelines in England and Wales: Recent Developments ' (2012) Punishment and Society. The International Journal of Penology

J Roberts, 'Sentencing Guidelines in England and Wales: Recent Developments and Emerging Issues' (2013) Law and Contemporary Problems

A Ashworth and J. V. Roberts (eds), Sentencing Guidelines: Exploring the English Model (Oxford University Press 2013) [...]

An edited book of essays on the English sentencing guidelines, reflecting critically on their merits both intrinsically and as compared with guidelines in other jurisdictions.


ISBN: 978-0-19-968457-1

J Roberts and A. Hastings, 'Sentencing in cases of hate-motivated crime: An analysis of the impact of sub-paragraph 718.2 of the Criminal Code.' (2001) Queen's Law Journal, 2001,

J Roberts and E Baker, 'Sentencing in Common Law Jurisdictions' in S Shoham, O Beck and M Kett (eds), International Handbook of Penology and Criminal Justice (Routledge 2007)

J Roberts and E. Baker, 'Sentencing in Common Law Jurisdictions' in International Penology (De Sitter 2006)

J Roberts and S. Terblanche, 'Sentencing in South Africa: lacking in principle but delivering justice?' (2005) South African Journal of Criminal Justice, 2005.

J Roberts and J. Tufts, 'Sentencing Juvenile Offenders: Public Preferences and Judicial Practice.' (2002) Criminal Justice Policy Review, 2002.

J Roberts, 'Sentencing scholarship and sentencing reform in Canada.' (2001) Mcgill Law Journal, 2001.

J Roberts and E. Baker, 'Sentencing Structure and Reform in Common Law Jurisdictions.' in S. Shoham (ed), International Handbook of Penology and Criminal Justice. (Taylor and Francis. 2008)

J Roberts and Mike Hough, 'Sentencing young offenders: public opinion in England and Wales.' (2005) Criminal Justice, 2005.

K Baker, 'Sentencing young people' in M. Blyth, R. Newman and C. Wright (eds), Children and Young People in Custody (Bristol: Policy Press 2008)

J Roberts, 'Sentencing, Law and Psychology' in An Introduction to Psychology and the Law (University of Toronto Press 2001)

A. Ashworth and J Roberts, 'Sentencing. Theory, Policy, and Practice.' in R. Morgan and M. Maguire (eds), Oxford Handbook of Criminology. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2012)

J Roberts, 'Serving Time at Home: The Conditional Sentence of Imprisonment' in J.V. Roberts and M. Grossman (eds), Criminal Justice in Canada. A Reader. (Toronto: Thomson Nelson 2007)

J Roberts, 'Serving Time in the Community: The Conditional Sentence of Imprisonment' in Roberts, Julian V. and Grossman, Michelle (eds), Criminal Justice in Canada : a Reader (Nelson Thomson Learning 2003)

R G Hood, Martina Feilzer, Stephen Shute and Aidan Wilcox, 'Sex offenders emerging from long-term imprisonment. A study of their long-term reconviction rates and Parole Board members judgements of their risk' (2002) 42 British Journal of Criminology 371 [...]

An empirical study which challenges a number of preconceptions about the risks posed by sex offenders who have been sentenced to long terms of imprisonment, as well as the ability of parole board members to identify those who pose the highest risk of being reconvicted.


A Ashworth, 'Should Strict Liability be Removed from all Imprisonable Offences?' (2010) 45 Irish Jurist 1 [...]

This is a principled attack on the propensity of the English and Irish legislatures to impose strict liability for criminal offences that carry a sentence of imprisonment.


ISBN: 0021-1273

I Loader, 'Sir Ian Blair: The Burkean Top Cop' (2010) 81 Political Quarterly 459   [Review]

I Loader and R Sparks, 'Situating Criminology: On the Production and Consumption of Knowledge about Crime and Justice' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (5th Edn) (Oxford University Press 2012)

R Burnett and S Maruna, 'So 'prison works', does it? The criminal careers of 130 men released from prison under Home Secretary Michael Howard' (2004) 43 Howard Journal of Criminal Justice 390

A Ashworth, 'Social Control and 'Anti-Social Behaviour': the subversion of human rights?' (2004) 120 Law Quarterly Review 263

B Kellezi and D Reicher, 'Social cure or social curse?: The psychological impact of extreme events during the Kosovo conflict.' in J. Jetten, C. Haslam, and S.A. Haslam (eds), The social cure: Identity, health, and well-being (New York: Psychology Press 2011) [...]

forthcoming


I Loader and S Percy (eds), Special Issue of Global Crime on 'Reordering Security' ( 2012)

I Loader and W de Haan (eds), Special issue of Theoretical Criminology on 'Crime, Punishment and the Emotions' ( 2002)

I Loader and M Bosworth (eds), Special issue of Theoretical Criminology on 'Re-inventing Penal Parsimony' ( 2010)

A Ashworth and others, 'Specifying Aims and Limits for Restorative Justice: a 'Making Amends' Model' in A von Hirsch, J. Roberts and A.E. Bottoms. (eds), Restorative Justice and Criminal Justice (Hart Publishing 2003)

I Loader and N Walker, 'State of Denial?: Rethinking the Governance of Security' (2004) 6 Punishment and Society 221   [Review]

N Lacey, State Punishment (Routledge 1988)

N Lacey, State Punishment: Political Principles and Community Values (Routledge 1988)

R Condry, 'Stigmatised Women: Relatives of Serious Offenders and the Broader Impact of Crime' in Frances Heidensohn (ed), Gender and Justice: New Concepts and Approaches (Willan Publishing 2006)

I Loader, 'Straw's embrace of penal excess ignores public will' (2008) The Guardian

J Roberts, 'Structured Sentencing in Canada and England and Wales: A Tale of Two Jurisdictions ' (2012) Criminal Law Forum

A. Ashworth and J Roberts (eds), Structured Sentencing in England and Wales: From Guidance to Guidelines (Oxford University Press 2013)

J Roberts, U. Azmeh and K. Tripathi, 'Structured Sentencing in England and Wales: Lessons for India?' (2011) National Law School of India Review

F Varese, 'Struktura mafioznykh gruppirovok’' (2004) 2 Panorama Issledovanij Politiki Prikam’ya 157 – 167 [...]

In Russian


L Lazarus, A Tomkins and H Fenwick, 'Submission in response to HM Treasury: Public Consultation: Draft Terrorist Asset-Freezing Bill (Cm 7852)' (2010)

L Lazarus and others,

P Saini and others, 'Suicide Prevention in Primary Care: General Practitioners? Views on Service Availability' (2010) 3 BMC Research Notes

J Donoghue, 'Summary Findings from an ESRC funded Study of Anti-Social Behaviour and the Courts in England & Wales', paper presented at Launch of Project Findings held at New College, University of Oxford. 22 March 2011.

J Roberts, C. Hutchison and R. Jesseman, 'Supervising conditional sentence orders: the perceptions of probation officers in Ontario.' (2005) Criminal Reports, 2005.

Alecia Johns, Hayley Hooper and L Lazarus, [...]

This was a follow-up to the 2011 comparative report on secret evidence, requested by the JCHR. It focused on the operation of security-cleared counsel in US habeas corpus proceedings as well as the US doctrine of State secrets privilege in order to help the JCHR whether those aspects of US practice should be adopted in the UK.


C Hoyle and S Noguera, 'Supporting Young Offenders Through Restorative Justice: Parents as (In)Appropriate Adults' (2008) 6 British Journal of Community Justice 67

L Zedner, 'Terrorism and Counterterrorism: What is at Risk?' in L Skinns, M Scott & T Cox (eds), Risk (Cambridge University Press 2011)

L Zedner, 'Terrorism, the ticking bomb, and criminal justice values ' (2008) 73 Criminal Justice Matters 18

L Lazarus, Adam Tomkins and Helen Fenwick, 'Terrorist asset-freezing - Continuing flaws in the current scheme' (2011) 25 International Review of Law, Computers and Technology 117 [...]

The Terrorist Asset-Freezing etc Act 2010 came into force on 17 December 2010. The 2010 Act repealed the previous Temporary Provisions Act. This article does not purport to provide comprehensive coverage of the Act; it outlines four main areas of concern that arose in respect of the Draft Terrorist Asset-Freezing Bill and that now arise in respect of the Terrorist Asset-Freezing etc Act 2010. In summary, these are as follows: problems of parliamentary scrutiny relating to the scope of the Act; problems relating to the reasonable suspicion test; problems relating to judicial process; problems relating to ECHR rights.


L Zedner, 'Terrorizing Criminal Law' (2014) 8 Criminal Law and Philosophy 99

A Ashworth, 'Testing Fidelity to Legal Values: Official Involvement and Criminal Justice' in S. Shute and A.P. Simester (eds), Criminal Law Theory: The General Part (Oxford University Press 2002) [...]

Analysis of cases and writings


ISBN: 0-19-924349-2

T LeBel, R Burnett, S Maruna and S Bushway, 'The "chicken and egg" of subjective and social factors in desistance from crime' (2008) 5 European Journal of Criminology 131

I Loader, 'The Anti-Politics of Crime (Review Essay)' (2008) 12 Theoretical Criminology 399   [Review]

I Loader, B Goold and A Thumala, 'The Banality of Security: The Curious Case of Surveillance Cameras' (2013) 53 British Journal of Criminology 977 [...]

Why do certain security goods become banal (while others do not)? Under what conditions does banality occur and with what effects? In this paper we answer these questions by examining the story of closed circuit television cameras (CCTV) in Britain. We consider the lessons to be learned from CCTV’s rapid – but puzzling - transformation from novelty to ubiquity, and what the banal properties of CCTV tell us about the social meanings of surveillance and security. We begin by revisiting and reinterpreting the historical process through which camera surveillance has diffused across the British landscape, focussing on the key developments that encoded CCTV in certain dominant meanings (around its effectiveness, for example) and pulled the cultural rug out from under alternative or oppositional discourses. Drawing upon interviews with those who produce and consume CCTV, we tease out and discuss the family of meanings that can lead one justifiably to describe CCTV as a banal good. We then examine some frontiers of this process and consider whether novel forms of camera surveillance (such as domestic CCTV systems) may press up against the limits of banality in ways that risk unsettling security practices whose social value and utility have come to be taken for granted. In conclusion, we reflect on some wider implications of banal security and its limits.


ISBN: 0007-0955

K Aas and M Bosworth (eds), The Borders of Punishment: Citizenship, Crime Control, and Social Exclusion (Oxford University Press 2013) (forthcoming)

F Varese, 'The Camorra Closely Observed' (2009) 10 Global Crime 262

R Burnett, 'The case for counselling as a method for working with offenders' (2002) 7 Vista: Perspectives on Probation 216

R G Hood and Stephen Shute, 'The changing face of parole in England and Wales. A story of well-intentioned reforms and unintended consequences' in Prittwitz, Baurmann,Günther, Kuhlen, Merkel, Nestler and Schulz (eds), Festschrift für Klaus Lüderssen (Nomos verlagsgessellschaft 0) [...]

An analysis of the factors influencing changes in the parole system of England and Wales and of the unintended consequences of these changes.


ISBN: 3-7890-7887-5

N. Bala, P. Carrington and J Roberts, 'The Changing Face of Youth Justice: Impact of the Youth Criminal Justice Act' in Criminal Justice in Canada (Fourth Edition) (Toronto: Pearson. 2011)

L Lazarus, 'The Composition of the UK Bill of Rights Commission' (2011) UK Constitutional Law Group Blog

L Zedner, 'The Concept of Security: an agenda for comparative analysis' in Jahrbuch fuer Rechts- und Kriminalsoziologie '02 (Nomos 2003) [...]

Chapter in leading German Annual on 'Legal and criminal sociology' on the theme of 'Innere Sicherheiten' (rough trans. 'Security')


ISBN: 3-8329-0084-5

L Zedner, 'The Concept of Security: an agenda for comparative analysis' (2003) 23 Legal Studies 153 [...]

Substantially revised and expanded version of the article that earlier appeared in Jahrbuch fuer Rechts- und Kriminalsoziologie(2003).


ISBN: 0-406-95932-3

J Roberts, 'The Coverage of Violent Crime in Toronto Newspapers.' in Report of the Royal Commission on Violence in the Communications Industry. (Royal Commission on Violence in the Communications Industry. 1976)

A Ashworth, The Criminal Law's Ambivalence about Outcomes (Rowan Cruft, Matthew Kramer, Mark Reiff, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2011) [...]

Revisiting and developing a debate with Antony Duff about intentions, outcomes and the criminal law.


ISBN: 978-0-19-959281-4

A Ashworth and others, The Criminal Process (Oxford University Press 2005) [...]

The third (expanded) edition of a critical text on the English criminal process and criminal procedure.


ISBN: 0-19-927338-3

A Ashworth and Mike Redmayne, The Criminal Process (Oxford University Press 2010)

A Ashworth and others, The Criminological Foundations of Penal Policy (Oxford University Press 2003) [...]

Co-edited Festschrift for Roger Hood


ISBN: 0-19-926509-7

L Zedner and A Ashworth (eds), The Criminological Foundations of Penal Policy: Essays in Honour of Roger Hood (Oxford University Press 2003) [...]

Festschrift or collection of essays in honour of Roger Hood. Edited by me and Ashworth with substantial Introductory Essay by us as Editors.


ISBN: 0-19-926509-7

S Pickering, M Bosworth and KF Aas, 'The Criminology of Mobility' in S Pickering (ed), Routledge Handbook on Crime and Migration (Routledge 2014) (forthcoming)

I Loader, 'The Cultural Lives of Security and Rights' in B Goold and L Lazarus (eds), Security and Human Rights (Hart 2007)

R G Hood, The Death Penalty: a World-wide Perspective, Third Edition – Revised and Updated (OUP 2002)

R Hood and C Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective (Oxford University Press 2008)

R G Hood, 'The Death Penalty: The Movement towards World-wide Abolition' in S.G. Shoham, O. Beck and M. Kett (eds), International Handbook of Penology and Criminal Justice (New York, CRC Press 2008)

F Varese, 'The Economics of the Camorra' (2006) Global Crime 268 [...]

Review Article


R Burnett and C. Roberts, 'The emergence and importance of evidence-based practice' in R. Burnett and C. Roberts (eds), What Works in Probation and Youth Justice (Willan Publishing 2004)

J Roberts, 'The Evolution of Conditional Sentencing in Canada.' (2002) Criminal Reports, 2002.

L Lazarus and others, 'The Evolution of Fundamental Rights Charters and Case Law: A Comparison of the United Nations, Council of Europe and European Union Systems' (European Parliament Directorate General for Internal Policies 2011) [...]

This report examines the human rights protection systems of the United Nations, the Council of Europe and the European Union. It explores the substantive rights, protection mechanisms, modes of engagement within, and the interactions between each system. The report also outlines the protection of minority rights, and the political processes through which human rights and institutions evolve and interact. A series of recommendations are made on how to advance the EU human rights system.


J Roberts, 'The Evolution of Sentencing Guidelines in England and Wales' (2010) Criminal Justice Matters

A Ashworth, 'The Exclusion of Evidence obtained by Violation of a Fundamental Right: Pragmatism before Principle in the Strasbourg Jurisprudence' in Paul Roberts and Jill Hunter (eds), Criminal Evidence and Human Rights: Reimagining Common Law Procedural Traditions (Hart Publishing 2012) (forthcoming) [...]

A principled analysis of the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights on the admissbiility of evidence obtained through violation of a Convention rights.


ISBN: 9781849461726

J Roberts, 'The fall and rise of the recidivist premium: recent developments in England and Wales.' (2005) Federal Sentencing Reporter, 2005.

J Roberts and P. Healy, 'The Future of Conditional Sentencing.' (2001) Criminal Law Quarterly, 2001,

J Roberts, 'The Future of Youth Court Sentencing in Canada' in Issues and Perspectives on Young Offenders (Thomson Nelson 2004)

M Hough, J Jackson and B Bradford, 'The governance of criminal justice, legitimacy and trust' in Sophie Body-Gendrot, Mike Hough, Klara Kerezsi, Rene Levy and Sonja Snacken (eds), The Routledge handbook of European criminology (Routledge 2013)

I Loader, 'The Great Victim of this Get-tough Hyperactivity is Labour' (2008) The Guardian

L Lazarus, 'The Human Rights Framework Relating to the Handling, Investigation and Prosecution of Rape Complaints, Annex A to the Stern Report on The Handling of Rape Complaints' (2010)

J Roberts and T. Gabor, 'The Impact of Conditional Sentencing: Decarceration and Widening of the Net.' (2003) Canadian Criminal Law Review, 2003.

R Young and C Hoyle, 'The Implementation and Effectiveness of the Initiative in Restorative Cautioning by Thames Valley Police, Research Findings' (Joseph Rowntree Foundation 2002)

J Roberts and R. Melchers, 'The Incarceration of Aboriginal Offenders: an analysis of trends, 1978-2001.' (2003) Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 2003.

L Zedner, 'The Inescapable Insecurity of Security Technologies?' in Aas, K. F., et al (eds), Technologies of Insecurity: Surveillance and securitsation of everyday life (Routledge 2008)

J Donoghue, 'The Judiciary as a Primary Definer on Antisocial Behaviour Orders' (2007) 46 Howard Journal of Criminal Justice 417 [...]

DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2311.2007.00486.x

It has been argued that the introduction of anti-social behaviour orders (ASBOs) has created a `new domain of professional power and knowledge' ( Brown 2004, p.203). That is, local authorities have become `the main agency of [social] control' ( Brown 2004, p.205). Alternatively, this article considers the effects of subjective legislative terminology, pivotal jurisprudential decisions, the courts' protection of individual liberties versus the public interest, and the relevance of an overburdened summary criminal justice system, and attempts to locate the position of the judiciary within ASBO cases, not as a supportive or subordinate one, but in fact as a component of elementary importance.


R Burnett and S Maruna, 'The kindness of prisoners: strengths-based resettlement in theory and in action' (2006) 6 Criminology and Criminal Justice 83

P.J. Carrington and J Roberts, 'The Last Chance Sanction in Youth Court: Exploring the Deferred Custody and Supervision Order' in S. Anand (ed), Paradoxes of Children’s Rights: Essays in Honour of Professor Nicholas Bala. (Toronto: Irwin Law. 2011)

N Lacey and L Zedner, 'The Legal Construction of Crime' in M Maguire, R Morgan & R Reiner (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (Oxford University Press 2012)

I Loader, B Goold and A Thumala, 'The Moral Economy of Security' (2014) 18 Theoretical Criminology [...]

In this paper we draw upon our recent research into security consumption to answer two questions: First, under what conditions do people experience the buying and selling of security goods and services as morally troubling? Second, what are the theoretical implications of understanding private security as, in certain respects, tainted trade? We begin by drawing on two bodies of work on morality and markets (one found in political theory, the other in cultural sociology) in order to develop what we call a moral economy of security. We then use this theoretical resource to conduct an anatomy of the modes of ambivalence and unease that the trade in security generates. Three categories organize the analysis: blocked exchange, corrosive exchange, and intangible exchange. In conclusion, we briefly spell out the wider significance of our claim that the buying and selling of security is a morally charged and contested practice of governance.


M Bosworth, 'The Past as a Foreign Country? Some Methodological Implications of Doing Historical Criminology' (2001) 41(3) British Journal of Criminology 431

I Loader and A Dockley (eds), The Penal Landscape: The Howard League Guide to Criminal Justice in England and Wales (London: Routledge 2013)

R Burnett and F McNeill, 'The place of the officer-offender relationship in assisting offenders to desist from crime' (2005) 52 Probation Journal 221

J Roberts, 'The pluses and minuses of custody: sentencing reform in England and Wales.' (2003) The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice

N Lacey and E Frazer, The Politics of Community (Harvester Wheatsheaf/University of Toronto Press 1993)

I Loader and A Mulcahy, 'The Power of Legitimate Naming: Part I - Chief Constables as Social Commentators in Post-War England' (2001) 41 British Journal of Criminology 41

I Loader and A Mulcahy, 'The Power of Legitimate Naming: Part II - Making Sense of the Elite Police Voice' (2001) 41 British Journal of Criminology 252

L Lazarus, 'The President, The Prosecutor, and the Secular Priest: corruption, politics and the courts - Jacob Zuma v National Director of Public Prosecution' (2008) Oxford Legal Studies Research Paper No. 46/2008

N Lacey, The Prisoners' Dilemma and Political Systems: The Impact of Proportional Representation on Criminal Justice in New Zealand (42, Victoria University of Wellington Law Review 2011) [...]

This is the text of the 2010 Shirley Smith Address delivered by Nicola Lacey on 8 December 2010, organised by the Wellington Women in Law Committee. The lecture offers an analysis of why New Zealand has attached itself to increasingly punitive criminal justice policies over the last 25 years, and considers in particular how far this has to do with the shape of New Zealand’s political system.


N Lacey, The Prisoners\' Dilemma: Political Economy and Punishment in Contemporary Democracies (Cambridge University Press 2008)

R Burnett, 'The Probation Service: Responding to Change. Proceedings of the Probation Studies Unit First Colloquium' (1997) University of Oxford Centre for Criminological Research

L Lazarus, Benjamin Goold, Rajendra Desai and Qudsi Rasheed, 'The Relationship Between Rights and Responsibilities' (Ministry of Justice Research Series 18/09 2009)

N Lacey, 'The Resurgence of Character: Criminal Responsibility in the Context of Criminalisation' in Antony Duff and Stuart Green (eds), Philosophical Foundations of Criminal Law (Oxford University Press 2011) [...]

In this paper, I further develop the diagnosis of a revival of character in contemporary criminal law. First, I offer a more differentiated conceptual framework for identifying and analysing the waxing and waning influence of character in criminal law. In doing so I set out, deliberately, from a broad definition of character as a pattern or practice of responsibility-attribution which is premised in whole or in part on an evaluation or estimation of the quality of the defendant’s (manifested or assumed) disposition as distinct from his or her conduct. Second, drawing on this broad model of character, I aim to demonstrate in greater detail the variety of ways in which contemporary criminal law is marked by a resurgence of character, paying particular attention to the ways in which this resurgence both resembles and differs from the reliance on character typical of pre-modern or 18th Century criminal justice, and realises itself with particular force within certain areas of criminalization. The broad model of character serves to illuminate family relationships between a range of ostensibly varied phenomena. In particular, by including within my purview the notions of not only bad character as constitutive of guilt but also bad character as probative of guilt, I am able to explore the ways in which, in the practical context of criminal justice, the recognition of the latter may shade into a practice closer to the former. In other words, I argue that criminal conviction, understood within prevailing conventions of communication, is coming more frequently to imply a judgment of criminal character. The upshot of this analysis is that the doctrinal arrangements of substantive criminal law, though not without importance, are in themselves rather rarely determinative of whether a character- or a capacity- approach to criminal responsibility prevails. Hence, third, I sketch an extra-doctrinal explanation of why we have seen a resurgence of interest in and reliance on ideas of character responsibility: one which finds the roots of the ideology of responsibility which shapes the criminal law in broad practices of criminalization, themselves influenced by a broader political, economic and social context. Finally, I draw some conclusions from this analysis for methodology in criminal law theory, and in particular for the appropriateness of a framework which locates its interpretation of criminal responsibility primarily within a conceptual analysis of legal doctrine in isolation from an analysis of the context of the criminal process, the rules of criminal procedure, the substantive scope of criminal law, and patterns of criminalization and punishment more generally.


L Lazarus, 'The Right to Security' in Rowan Cruft, Matthew Liao and Massimo Renzo (eds), The Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights (Oxford University Press 2014) (forthcoming) [...]

This paper surveys and critiques the philosophical theories that engage with and support a moral right to security.


L Lazarus, 'The Right to Security - Securing Rights or Securitizing Rights' in Dickinson et al (ed), Examining Critical Perspectives on Human Rights (Cambridge University Press 2012) [...]

This paper examines the rise of the right to security within human rights discourse and its potential to erode human rights more generally. It argues that political discourse around the apparent conflict between security and rights since 9/11 has been complicated by an emerging notion of the 'right to security' as the meta-right (the right of rights). This claim (and the inherent ambiguity of what the right to security requires) has the potential to lead to a 'securitization' of human rights, a process that threatens to erode the traditional foundations of human rights, and human rights themselves. Operating in tandem with this 'securitization' process, the discourse of the right to security has been used to sanitize, or at least to legitimate, coercive security measures. This is a process I refer to as 'righting' security. These two processes combine in complex ways to give security an effective trump claim over other rights.


J Roberts, 'The Role of public opinion in the development of sentencing policy and practice' in A Freiberg and K Gelb (eds), Penal Populism, Sentencing Councils and Sentencing Policy (Willan Publishing/Federation Press 2008)

J Roberts, 'The Role of the Victim at Sentencing and Corrections' in K Reitz and J Petersilia (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Sentencing and Corrections (Oxford University Press 2010)

J Roberts, 'The Role of the Victim at Sentencing and Corrections' in K. Reitz and J. Petersilia (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Sentencing and Corrections (New York: Oxford University Press. 2012)

F Varese, The Russian Mafia. Private Protection in a New Market Economy (OUP 2001)

P. Stenning and J Roberts (eds), The Scholarship of Jean-Paul Brodeur (Canadian Journal of Criminology 2011)

F Varese, 'The Secret History of Japanese Cinema: The Yakuza Movies' (2006) 7(1) Global Crime 105

J Roberts and P. Stenning, 'The Sentencing of Aboriginal Offenders.' (2002) Saskatchewan Law Review, 2002.

J Roberts, 'The sentencing of Juveniles in Canada: An analysis of recent reform legislation.' (2003) Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice

A Ashworth and others, 'The Sexual Offences Act 2003: Rape, Sexual Assaults and the Problem of Consent' [2004] [2004] Criminal Law Review 328 [...]

Analysis and critique of new legislation


ISBN: 0011 135X

J Donoghue, 'The Sociology of law: A rejection of law as socially marginal' (2009) 37 International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice 51 [...]

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijlcj.2009.03.001

Rejecting the concept of law as subservient to social pathology, the principle aim of this article is to locatc law as a critical matter of social structure - and power - which requires to be considered as a central element in the construction of society and social institutions. As such, this article contends that wider jurisprudential notions such as legal procedure and procedural justice, and juridical power and discretion are cogent, robust normative social concerns (as much as they are legal concerns) that positively require consideration and representation in the ernpifical study of sociological phenomena. Reflecting upon scholarship and research evidence on legal procedure and decision-making, the article attempts to elucidate the inter-relationship between power, 'the social', and the operation of law. It concludes that law is not 'socially marginal' but socially, totally central.


J Roberts and Mike Hough, 'The state of the prisons: exploring public knowledge and opinion.' (2005) The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 2005.

A Ashworth, 'The Struggle for Supremacy in Sentencing' in A. Ashworth and J.V. Roberts (eds), Sentencing Guidelines: Exploring the English Model (Oxford University Press 2013) [...]

An analysis of the politics of sentencing in the first decade of this century, assessing the positions of the judiciary, the government and the sentencing guideline bodies and their respective influences on sentencing policy.


ISBN: 978-0-19-968457-1

A Ashworth, 'The Unfairness of Risk-Based Possession Offences' (2011) 5 Criminal Law and Philosophy 237 [...]

The article argues that certain criminal offences of possession, i.e. 'risk-based possession offences', cannot be justified within current criminal law doctrines.


ISBN: 1871-9791

M Bosworth, The US Federal Prison System (Sage Publications 2002) [...]

This book pulls together scholarly research, government publications and first hand accounts to provide the first overview of policy and practice in the US Federal Prison system. It also contains an appendix listing and describing all federal prisons. It is a cross-over book, designed for prison researchers, prisoners and those who work with them. It was positively reviewed in academic journals.

ISBN: 0-7619-2304-7

Anne Carter, Nabiya Syed, Ryan Goss and L Lazarus, [...]

On 19 October 2011 the Government published a Green Paper on Justice and Security that proposes reforms to the use of secret evidence. This research paper by Oxford Pro Bono Publico (OPBP) is intended to assist the Joint Committee of Human Rights (JCHR) in its scrutiny of the Government's proposals in the Green Paper.


C Hoyle, R Morgan and A Sanders, 'The Victim's Charter - An Evaluation of Pilot Projects' (1999) 107 Home Office Research Findings

J Roberts, The Virtual Prison. Community Custody and the Evolution of Imprisonment. (Cambridge University Press 2004)

N Lacey, The Way We Lived Then: The Legal Profession and the Nineteenth Century Novel (33, Sydney Law Review 2011) [...]

This paper contributes to the use of the novel as an interpretive resource in legal and social history. It focuses on an issue which appears to have been neglected amid the rich skeins of recent debate. Particularly in relation to criminal defence, from the debate in the run-up to the advent of general legal representation in the Prisoners’ Counsel Act 1836 through to James Fitzjames Stephen’s interventions in defence of lawyers in the 1850s and 1860s, the ethical standards of advocacy and of legal representation more generally were a salient preoccupation of the novel, as of contemporary public debate in newspapers and reviews. Given the significant expansion of the legal profession, and the gradual changes in its organisation, this was hardly surprising. But amid the illuminating interpretation of this mutual engagement between (the overlapping categories of) novelists, journalists, essayists and lawyers, little has been done by way of contextualising this debate within the development of the professions, and of professionalism more generally, in 19th century Britain. As I shall try to show, an understanding of the struggle to come to terms with the extraordinary — yet incomplete — rise of professionalism, both in and beyond law, can be helpful in explaining the form which literary representations of law took, and the fact that certain kinds of lawyer and of legal practice were singled out for particular literary attention and indeed opprobrium. In asking how attitudes to professionalisation affected the literary treatment of law, and what the developing treatment of legal themes in the novel can tell us about contemporary understandings of professionalism and of what justified and legitimated it, I will focus in particular on the novels of Anthony Trollope, while drawing examples and analogies from the work of other authors.


N. Bala, P. Carrington and J Roberts, 'The Youth Criminal Justice Act: A Qualified Success' (2009) Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P. Carrington, J Roberts and S. Davis-Barron, 'The ‘Last Chance’ Sanction in Youth Court: Exploring the Deferred Custody and Supervision Order' (2011) Canadian Criminal Law Review

M Bosworth, 'Theorizing Race and Imprisonment: Towards a New Penality' (2004) 12 Critical Criminology 221 [...]

This is a comparison of historical and contemporary issues to do with race and prisons in the UK, France and the USA.

F Varese, 'There is no place like Home. How the mafia finds it difficult to expand from its geographical base' (2001) Times Literary Supplement '3   [Review]

I Loader, 'Thinking Normatively About Private Security' (1997) 24 Journal of Law and Society 377

I Loader, 'This Internment Lobby Risks Harming not Just Liberty, But Security Itself' (2007) The Guardian

R Burnett, 'To re-offend or not to re-offend? The ambivalence of convicted property offenders' in S. Maruna and R. Immarigeon (eds), After Crime and Punishment: Pathways to Offender Reintegration. (Willan 2004)

L Zedner, 'Too Much Security?' (2003) 31 International Journal of the Sociology of Law 155

C Hoyle and R Hood, 'Towards Global Abolition of the Death Penalty: Progress and Prospects' in Council of Europe / World Coalition against the Death Penalty (ed), The Current State of the Death Penalty (Council of Europe / World Coalition against the Death Penalty 2010)

R G Hood, 'Towards Global Abolition of the Death Penalty: Progress and Prospects' in Paloma Bigling and William A. Schabas (eds), Towards Universal Abolition of the Death Penalty (Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch 2010)

J Roberts, J. Jacobson and M. Hough, 'Towards more Consistent and Predictable Sentencing in England and Wales' in M. Hough, R. Allen and E. Solomon (eds), Tackling Prison Overcrowding. Build More Prisons? Sentence Fewer Offenders? (Bristol: The Policy Press 2008)

I Loader, A Thumala and B Goold, 'Tracking Devices: On the Reception of a Novel Security Good' (2014) 14 Criminology & Criminal Justice [...]

In this paper, we describe and make sense of the reception of a novel security good: namely, the personal GPS tracking device. There is nothing new about tracking. Electronic monitoring is an established technology with many taken-for-granted uses. Against this backdrop, we focus on a particular juncture in the ‘social life’ of tracking, the moment at which personal trackers were novel goods in the early stages of being brought to market and promoted as protective devices. Using data generated in a wider study of security consumption, our concern is to understand how this extension of tracking technology into everyday routines and social relations was received by its intended consumers and users. How do potential buyers or users of these novel protective devices respond to this novel security object? What is seductive or repulsive about keeping track of those for whom one has a duty or relationship of care? How do new tracking technologies intersect with – challenge, reshape or get pushed back by – existing social practices and norms, most obviously around questions of risk, responsibility, trust, autonomy and privacy? This paper sets out to answer these questions and to consider what the reception of this novel commodity can tell us about the meaning and future of security.


J Roberts, H. Johnson and M. Grossman, 'Trends in Crimes of Sexual Aggression in Canada' in J. Winterdyk, R. Reichel and H. Danmer (eds), A Guided Reader in Comparative Criminology and Criminal Justice. (Bochum: Brockmeyer 2009)

J Roberts, H. Johnson and M. Grossman, 'Trends in crimes of sexual aggression in Canada: an analysis of police-reported and victimizations statistics.' (2003) International Journal of Comparative Criminology, 2003.

B Bradford and Andy Myhill, 'Triggers of change to public confidence in the police and criminal justice system: Findings from the Crime Survey for England and Wales panel experiment' (2014) Criminology and Criminal Justice (forthcoming) [...]

DOI: 10.1177/1748895814521825

Accounts of public ‘trust and confidence’ in criminal justice agencies often fall into one of two camps. Instrumental accounts suggest that people trust police and the criminal justice system (CJS) when they believe them to be effective in fighting crime and reducing offending. Expressive or affective accounts, by contrast, suggest people place as much or more emphasis on the social meaning of justice institutions as on their instrumental activities. In this article we add to recent studies that have sought to weigh up the balance between instrumental and expressive factors. Using data from the Crime Survey for England and Wales panel experiment, we present evidence that trust in police and the wider CJS is implicated in public concerns about the nature of local order and cohesion. The expressive account appears to offer a better understanding of why people may grant trust to, or withdraw trust from, the police and the CJS.


J Donoghue, 'Truancy and the Prosecution of Parents: An Unfair Burden on Mothers?' (2011) 74 Modern Law Review 216 [...]

DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2230.2011.00844.x

This article considers the development and use of the law regulating the prosecution of parents under section 444 of the Education Act 1996, in the broader context of legislation and policy initiatives concerned with the governance of parental responsibility. It explores the ways in which the power to prosecute parents has been used by local educational authorities (LEAs) and interpreted by the courts. The article critically analyses the manner in which the powers emphasise punishment and retribution in the context of the social moralisation of flawed parents; pay insufficient regard to the effects of parental responsibility laws on low-income, single parent families; represent an attempt to impose a simple solution on to a complex socio-economic problem; and amplify the scope for mothers to be made the subject of criminal justice interventions. It is argued that the prosecution of parents imposes an unfair burden on mothers and, in particular, single parent mothers.


C Hoyle, A Wilcox and R Young, 'Two-year Resanctioning Study: A Comparison of Restorative and Traditional Cautions' (Home Office 57 1 2004) [...]

This study reports the results of a 24 month resanctioning study of traditional and restorative cautions. It compared the resanctioning rates of over 29,000 offenders in the 3 police forces (2 using restorative cautions and 2 using the traditional process). No evidence was found to suggest that restorative cautioning resulted in a statistically significantly reduction in the resanctioning rate or the frequency or seriousness of offending.

ISBN: 1 84473 479X

R Burnett, 'Understanding criminal careers through a series of in-depth interviews' (2000) 4 Offender Programs Report 1

J Roberts and M Hough, Understanding Public Attitudes to Criminal Justice (Open University Press 2005) [...]

This monograph discusses public opinion in the field of criminal justice, drawing upon research conducted in many western nations.

ISBN: 0 335 21536X

J Roberts and N. Bala, 'Understanding sentencing under the Youth Criminal Justice Act.' (2003) Alberta Law Review

J Roberts, 'Unearthing the Sphinx: the evolution of conditional sentencing' in Criminal law in Canada (Canadian Bar Review 2001) [...]

Chapter charting the evolution of conditional sentencing in Canada

I Loader and R Sparks, 'Unfinished Business: Legitimacy, Crime Control and Democratic Politics' in J Tankebe and A Liebling (eds), Legitimacy and Criminal Justice: An International Exploration (Oxford Oxford University Press 2013)

J Roberts and others, 'Unintentional firearms deaths:Can they be reduced by lowering gun ownership levels?' (2002) Canadian Journal of Public Health, 2002.

N Lacey, Unspeakable Subjects: Feminist Essays in Legal and Social Theory (Hart Publishing 1998)

Sarah McCosker, Ben Saul, Deborah Sandler and L Lazarus, [...]

This report included specific research questions set to OXPIL by Clive Stafford Smith regarding the charges against Mr. Al Qosi in the Guantanamo Bay military tribunal.


L Zedner, 'Useful Knowledge? Debating the Role of Criminology in Post-war Britain' in L Zedner & A Ashworth (eds), The Criminological Foundations of Penal Policy: Essays in Honour of Roger Hood ( 2003) [...]

Chapter in Festschrift for Roger Hood


ISBN: 0-19-926509-7

K Baker, S Jones, C Roberts and S Merrington, 'Validity and Reliability of Asset' (London: Youth Justice Board 2003)

F Varese, 'Varieties of Protectors' in A. Amin and N.J.Thrift (eds), The Blackwell Cultural Economy Reader (Blackwell Publishing. 2004)

J Roberts, 'Victim impact statements and the sentencing process: enhancing communication in the courtroom.' (2003) Criminal Law Quarterly, 2003.

J Roberts and M. Manikis, 'Victim Impact Statements at Sentencing: Developments in Caselaw. ' (2012) Victims of Crime Research Digest

J Roberts and M Manikis, 'Victim Impact Statements at Sentencing: Exploring the relevance of Ancillary Harm (in press)' (2010) Canadian Criminal Law Review

J Roberts and E Erez, 'Victim Impact Statements at Sentencing: Expressive and Instrumental Purposes' in Hearing the Victim: Adversarial Justice, Crime Victims, and the State (Willan Publishing 2010)

J Roberts and A. Edgar, 'Victim impact statements at sentencing: perceptions of the judiciary in Canada.' (2003) International Journal of Victimology

C Hoyle, Andrew Sanders, Rod Morgan and Ed Cape, 'Victim Impact Statements: Don't work, Can't work' [2001] June Criminal Law Review 437 [...]

This article contributes to the debate in the Criminal Law Review between Erez and Ashworth on victim impact statement schemes (VIS). The authors argue that VIS are misconceived in principle and unsatisfactory in practice.

ISBN: 0011 135X

J Roberts and E. Erez, 'Victim Participation in the Criminal Justice System.' in R. Davis, A. Lurigio and S. Herman (eds), Victims of Crime. (Fourth Edition). (Beverly Hills: Sage. 2012)

E. Erez and J Roberts, 'Victim Participation in the Criminal Process: Normative Dilemmas and Practical Solutions.' in S. Shoham, P. Knepper and P. Kett (eds), The International Handbook of Criminology. (London: Taylor and Francis 2009)

J Roberts and M. Manikis, 'Victim Personal Statements at Sentencing: A Review of the Empirical Research. ' (London: Office of the Commissioner for Victims and Witnesses of England and Wales 2011)

J Roberts and Marie Manikis, 'Victim Personal Statements: Latest (and last) Trends from the Witnesses and Victims Experience Survey in England and Wales' (2013) Criminology and Criminal Justice

L Zedner, 'Victims' in M.Maguire et al (ed), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 3rd edn. (OUP 2002) [...]

Substantially revised chapter on victims for third edition of this major student text.


ISBN: 0-19-925609-8

N Padfield and J Roberts, 'Victims and Parole: Probative or Prejudicial?' in Hearing the Victim: Adversarial Justice, Crime Victims, and the State (Willan Publishing 2010)

E. Erez and J Roberts, 'Victims and the Criminal Justice System' in B. Cutler (ed), Encylopedia of Law and Psychology. (Beverly Hills: Sage 2007)

J Roberts, 'Victims of Crime: Successes and Challenges in the Years to Come' (2008) Victims of Crime Research

C Hoyle, M Bosworth and M Dempsey, 'Victims of Sex Trafficking: Exploring the borderland between rhetoric and reality' (2011) Social and Legal Studies

C Hoyle and L Zedner, 'Victims, Victimization and Criminal Justice' in M Maguire, R Morgan and R Reiner (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 4th edn (OUP 2007)

L Zedner and Carolyn Hoyle, 'Victims, Victimization, and the Criminal Process' in M Maguire, R Morgan & R Reiner (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (Oxford University Press 2007) [...]

Authoritative overview of the literature and research on victims and their role in the criminal process for the key criminological textbook in the field.


ISBN: 978-0-19-920543-1

L Zedner, 'Vigilantism' in Peter Cane & Joanne Conaghan (eds), The New Oxford Companion to Law (Oxford University Press 2008)

B Bradford, 'Voice neutrality and respect: Use of Victim Support services procedural fairness and confidence in the Criminal Justice System' (2011) Criminology and Criminal Justice [...]

DOI: 10.1177/1748895811408832

Public confidence in the criminal justice system (CJS) is a topic of perennial concern across the United Kingdom, particularly in light of the relatively low levels of confidence reported in the British Crime Survey (BCS) and elsewhere. Recent work on policing has stressed that the experience of procedural fairness is an important influence on ‘user-satisfaction’, trust and legitimacy. Yet it is unclear whether this emphasis on fairness applies to the CJS as a whole, which many might see as primarily there to manage — and punish — offenders as efficiently as possible. This article reports on analysis of the BCS that suggests contact with Victim Support is linked to more favourable views of the fairness of the CJS and to higher levels of confidence in its effectiveness. By providing victims with voice and a sense that someone is listening to and taking their concerns seriously, contact with VS seems to be linked to more favourable overall assessments of the CJS. A space is therefore opened up for approaches to enhancing public confidence that do not rely on ever more punitive policies, or on the arguably Sisyphean task of convincing the public that extant policies are punitive enough.


ISBN: 1748-8958

I Loader and R Sparks, 'Wacquant and Civic Sociology: Formative Intentions and Formative Experiences' (2010) 10 Criminology & Criminal Justice 405

I Loader, 'We Lock People up with No Thought and to Little Effect' (2007) The Guardian

M Bosworth and C Hoyle, 'What is Criminology: An Introduction' in M Bosworth and C Hoyle (eds), What is Criminology? (Oxford University Press 2011)

M Bosworth and C Hoyle (eds), What is Criminology? (Oxford University Press 2011)

I Loader and R Sparks, 'What is to be done with Public Criminology?' (2010) 9 Criminology & Public Policy 771

B Bradford, A Huq, J Jackson and B Roberts, 'What price fairness when security is at stake? Police legitimacy in South Africa' (2013) Regulation and Governance [...]

DOI: 10.1111/rego.12012

The legitimacy of legal authorities – particularly the police – is central to the state's ability to function in a normatively justifiable and effective manner. Studies, mostly conducted in the US and UK, regularly find that procedural justice is the most important antecedent of police legitimacy, with judgments about other aspects of police behavior – notably, about effectiveness – appearing less relevant. But this idea has received only sporadic testing in less cohesive societies where social order is more tenuous, resources to sustain it scarcer, and the position of the police is less secure. This paper considers whether the link between process fairness and legitimacy holds in the challenging context of present day South Africa. In a high crime and socially divided society, do people still emphasize procedural fairness or are they more interested in instrumental effectiveness? How is the legitimacy of the police influenced by the wider problems faced by the South African state? We find procedural fairness judgments play a key role, but also that South Africans place greater emphasis on police effectiveness (and concerns about crime). Police legitimacy is, furthermore, associated with citizens' judgments about the wider success and trustworthiness of the state.


ISBN: 1748-5991

R Burnett, What Works in Probation and Youth Justice: Developing Evidence-based Practice. (C. Roberts, Willan Publishing 2004)

I Loader, 'Where is Policing Studies? (Review Essay)' (2011) 51 British Journal of Criminology 449   [Review]

D. Faulkner and R Burnett, Where Next for Criminal Justice? (The Policy Press 2011)

I Loader, 'Why community engagement matters?' (2012) Opening Address to Police Foundation Annual Conference

J Jackson and others, 'Why do People Comply with the Law?: Legitimacy and the Influence of Legal Institutions' (2012) 52 British Journal of Criminology [...]

DOI: 10.1093/bjc/azs032

This paper extends Tyler’s procedural justice model of public compliance with the law. Analysing data from a national probability sample of adults in England and Wales, we present a new conceptualization of legitimacy based on not just the recognition of power, but also the justification of power. We find that people accept the police’s right to dictate appropriate behaviour not only when they feel a duty to obey officers, but also when they believe that the institution acts according to a shared moral purpose with citizens. Highlighting a number of different routes by which institutions can influence citizen behaviour, our broader normative model provides a better framework for explaining why people are willing to comply with the law.


ISBN: 0007-0955

I Loader, 'Why do the Police Matter? Beyond the Myth of Crime Fighting' in J Brown (ed), The Future of Policing (London: Routledge 2013)

B Bradford, P Quinton, A Myhill and G Porter, 'Why do ‘the law’ comply? Procedural justice, group identification and officer motivation in police organizations' (2013) European Journal of Criminology [...]

DOI: 10.1177/1477370813491898

How can police officers be encouraged to commit to changing organizational and personal practice? In this paper we test organizational justice theories that suggest that fair processes and procedures enhance rule compliance and commitment to the organization and its goals. We pay particular attention to (a) tensions between the role of group identity in organizational justice models and classic concerns about ‘cop culture’; and (b) the danger of over-identification with the organization and the counterproductive types of compliance this may engender. Results suggest that organizational justice enhances identification with the police organization, encourages officers to take on new roles, increases positive views of community policing, and is associated with greater self-reported compliance. Identification with the organization has generally positive implications; however, there is some danger that process fairness may encourage unthinking compliance with orders and instructions.


N Lacey, 'Why Globalisation Doesn't Spell Convergence: Models of Institutional Variation and the Comparative Political Economy of Punishment ' in Adam Crawford (ed), International and Comparative Criminal Justice and Urban Governance ( Cambridge University Press 2011)

I Loader, 'Why PCCs must go: A better way to do local policing' (2013) Left Foot Forward

I Loader, 'Why penal reform should be a Conservative issue' (2009) Conservative Home

C Hoyle, 'Will She Be Safe? A Critical Analysis of Risk Assessment inDomestic Violence Cases' (2008) 30 Children and Youth Services Review 323

N Lacey, Women, Crime and Character: From Moll Flanders to Tess of the d\'Urbervilles (Oxford University Press 2008)

L Zedner, Women, Crime, and Custody in Victorian England (Oxford University Press 1991)

K Baker, 'Young Offenders and Public Protection' in M. Nash and A. Williams (eds), Handbook of Public Protection (Willan 2010)

N. Bala, P. Carrington and J Roberts, 'Youth Justice Reform in Canada: Reducing the Use of Courts and Custody without Increasing Youth Crime' in D. Smith (ed), A New Approach to Youth Justice (Cullompton: Willan Publishing. 2010)

R Burnett, 'Youth offending teams' in T. Bateman and J. Pitts (eds), Companion to Youth Justice (Russell House Publishing 2005)

I Loader, Youth, Policing and Democracy (Palgrave 1996)

C Hoyle, '\\\'Victims, Victimisation and Restorative Justice' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (Oxford University Press 2012)

F Varese, '‘Clientelism’, ‘Corruption’, ‘Mafia’, ‘Principal-Agent Problem’, ‘State Capture’' in I. McLean (ed), Oxford Dictionary of Politics, 2nd ed. (Oxford University Press 2003)

N Lacey, '‘Punishment, (Neo)Liberalism and Social Democracy’, in (eds.)(Sage Publishing 2012) pp. 260-280' in Jonathan Simon and Richard Sparks (eds), The Sage Handbook of Punishment and Society (Sage Publishing 2012) [...]

In this essay, I address recent attempts to understand the relevance of broadly political forces and institutions in shaping the practice and the social meaning of punishment. I focus on an argument about the relevance of the political which has been especially influential in the punishment and society field during the last decade. This is the argument that political systems can usefully be characterised as broadly liberal or neoliberal, or as social democratic: and that the decline or attenuation of social democracy, and the concomitant rise of (neo)liberalism has been associated with an intensification of penality. I call this the ‘neoliberal penality thesis’ I set out what I take to be the key arguments for that thesis, before presenting a critical analysis of the utility of such a broad conceptualisation of political systems.


N Lacey, '‘Reflections on the Philosophy of Law’' (2012) Rivista di filosofia del diritto 91


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